Generic placeholder image

Recent Patents on Inflammation & Allergy Drug Discovery


ISSN (Print): 1872-213X
ISSN (Online): 2212-2710

Review Article

Childhood Alopecia Areata: An Overview of Treatment and Recent Patents

Author(s): Kam L. Hon*, David C.K. Luk, Alexander K.C. Leung, Chantel Ng and Steven K.F. Loo

Volume 14, Issue 2, 2020

Page: [117 - 132] Pages: 16

DOI: 10.2174/1872213X14999200728145822

Price: $65


Background: Alopecia Areata (AA) is a systemic autoimmune condition that usually starts in childhood.

Objective: This article aims to review genetics, therapy, prognosis, and recent patents for AA.

Methods: We used clinical queries and keywords “alopecia areata” AND “childhood” as a search engine. Patents were searched using the key term “alopecia areata” in and freepatentsonline. com.

Results: Due to an immune-mediated damage to the hair follicles, hair is lost from the scalp and other areas of the body temporarily or even permanently. Children with AA are generally healthy. Evidence of genetic association and increased predisposition for AA was found by studying families with affected members. Pathophysiologically, T- lymphocytes attack hair follicles and cause inflammation and destruction of the hair follicles and hair loss. In mild cases, there would be well-demarcated round patchy scalp hair loss. The pathognomonic “exclamation mark hairs” may be seen at the lesion periphery. In more severe cases, the hair loss may affect the whole scalp and even the whole body. The clinical course is also variable, which may range from transient episodes of recurrent patchy hair loss to an indolent gradually deteriorating severe hair loss. The treatment of AA depends on factors including patients’ age, the extent of the hair loss, duration of disease, psychological impact, availability and side effect profile of the treatments. For localized patchy alopecia, topical application of corticosteroids and/or intralesional corticosteroids are the treatment of choice. Other topical treatments include minoxidil, anthralin, coal tar and immunotherapy. In severe resistant cases, systemic immunosuppressants may be considered. Although herbal medicine, acupuncture, complementary and alternative medicine may be tried on children in some Asian communities, the evidence to support these practices is lacking. To date, only a few recent patents exist in topical treatments, including Il-31, laser and herbal medications. Clinical efficacy is pending for these treatment modalities.

Conclusion: None of the established therapeutic options are curative. However, newer treatment modalities, including excimer laser, interleukin-31 antibodies and biologics, are evolving so that there may be significant advances in treatment in the near future. AA can be psychosocially devastating. It is important to assess the quality of life, degree of anxiety, social phobia and mood of the patients and their families. Psychological support is imperative for those who are adversely affected psychosocially.

Keywords: Alopecia areata, alopecia totalis, alopecia universalis, corticosteroids, interleukin-31, minoxidil, psychological stress.

Mitchell AJ, Krull EA. Alopecia areata: Pathogenesis and treatment. J Am Acad Dermatol 1984; 11(5 Pt 1): 763-75.
[] [PMID: 6210311]
Hon KL, Leung AK. Alopecia areata. Recent Pat Inflamm Allergy Drug Discov 2011; 5(2): 98-107.
[] [PMID: 21453266]
Hon K-L, Leung AK, Ng PC. Unusual loss of body hair in childhood: Trichotillomania or alopecia. Adv Ther 2008; 25(4): 380-7.
[] [PMID: 18463804]
Paus R, Nickoloff BJ, Ito T. A ‘hairy’ privilege. Trends Immunol 2005; 26(1): 32-40.
[] [PMID: 15629407]
Leung AK, Robson WL. Hair loss in children. J R Soc Health 1993; 113(5): 252-6.
[] [PMID: 8230078]
Delamere FM, Sladden MM, Dobbins HM, Leonardi-Bee J. Interventions for alopecia areata. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008; (2): CD004413.
[PMID: 18425901]
Lee HH, Gwillim E, Patel KR, et al. Epidemiology of alopecia areata, ophiasis, totalis, and universalis: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Acad Dermatol 2020; 82(3): 675-82.
Safavi KH, Muller SA, Suman VJ, Moshell AN, Melton LJ III. Incidence of alopecia areata in Olmsted County, Minnesota, 1975 through 1989. Mayo Clin Proc 1995; 70(7): 628-33.
[] [PMID: 7791384]
Gilhar A, Kalish RS. Alopecia areata: A tissue specific autoimmune disease of the hair follicle. Autoimmun Rev 2006; 5(1): 64-9.
[] [PMID: 16338213]
Alkhalifah A, Alsantali A, Wang E, McElwee KJ, Shapiro J. Alopecia areata update: Part I. Clinical picture, histopathology, and pathogenesis. J Am Acad Dermatol 2010; 62(2): 177-88.
[] [PMID: 20115945]
Hon KL, Leung TF, Wong Y, Ma KC, Fok TF. Skin diseases in Chinese children at a pediatric dermatology center. Pediatr Dermatol 2004; 21(2): 109-12.
[] [PMID: 15078347]
Hawit F, Silverberg NB. Alopecia areata in children. Cutis 2008; 82(2): 104-10.
[PMID: 18792541]
Nanda A, Al-Hasawi F, Alsaleh QA. A prospective survey of pediatric dermatology clinic patients in Kuwait: An analysis of 10,000 cases. Pediatr Dermatol 1999; 16(1): 6-11.
[] [PMID: 10027990]
Seyrafi H, Akhiani M, Abbasi H, Mirpour S, Gholamrezanezhad A. Evaluation of the profile of alopecia areata and the prevalence of thyroid function test abnormalities and serum autoantibodies in Iranian patients. BMC Dermatol 2005; 5: 11.
[] [PMID: 16259629]
Garg S, Messenger AG. Alopecia areata: Evidence-based treatments. Semin Cutan Med Surg 2009; 28(1): 15-8.
[] [PMID: 19341938]
Price VH. Alopecia areata: Clinical aspects. J Invest Dermatol 1991; 96(5): 68S.
[] [PMID: 2022874]
Villasante Fricke AC, Miteva M, Villasante A, Villasante Fricke AC, Miteva M. Epidemiology and burden of alopecia areata: A systematic review. Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol 2015; 8: 397-403.
Villasante Fricke AC, Miteva M. Epidemiology and burden of alopecia areata: A systematic review. Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol 2015; 8: 397-403.
Muller SA, Winkelmann RK. Alopecia areata. An evaluation of 736 patients. Arch Dermatol 1963; 88: 290-7.
[] [PMID: 14043621]
Shellow WV, Edwards JE, Koo JY. Profile of alopecia areata: A questionnaire analysis of patient and family. Int J Dermatol 1992; 31(3): 186-9.
[] [PMID: 1568816]
van der Steen P, Traupe H, Happle R, Boezeman J, Sträter R, Hamm H. The genetic risk for alopecia areata in first degree relatives of severely affected patients. An estimate. Acta Derm Venereol 1992; 72(5): 373-5.
[PMID: 1361288]
Martinez-Mir A, Zlotogorski A, Gordon D, et al. Genomewide scan for linkage reveals evidence of several susceptibility loci for alopecia areata. Am J Hum Genet 2007; 80(2): 316-28.
[] [PMID: 17236136]
Mukherjee N, Burkhart CN, Morrell DS. Treatment of alopecia areata in children. Pediatr Ann 2009; 38(7): 388-95.
[] [PMID: 19685659]
Alkhalifah A, Alsantali A, Wang E, McElwee KJ, Shapiro J. Alopecia areata update: Part II. Treatment. J Am Acad Dermatol 2010; 62(2): 191-202.
[] [PMID: 20115946]
Tan E, Tay YK, Goh CL, Chin Giam Y. The pattern and profile of alopecia areata in Singapore- a study of 219 Asians. Int J Dermatol 2002; 41(11): 748-53.
[] [PMID: 12452996]
Leung AKC, Leung AAC. Evaluation and management of the child with hypothyroidism. World J Pediatr 2019; 15(2): 124-34.
Leung AKCK, Hon K-LEL. Seasonal allergic rhinitis. Recent Pat Inflamm Allergy Drug Discov 2013; 7(3): 187-201.
[] [PMID: 23829414]
Putterman E, Castelo-Soccio L. Seasonal patterns in alopecia areata, totalis, and universalis. J Am Acad Dermatol 2018; 79(5): 974-5.
Lu W, Shapiro J, Yu M, et al. Alopecia areata: Pathogenesis and potential for therapy. Expert Rev Mol Med 2006; 8(14): 1-19.
[] [PMID: 16787552]
Lymphocytes, neuropeptides, and genes involved in alopecia areata. J Clin Invest 2007; 117: 2019-7.
Paus R, Ito N, Takigawa M, Ito T. The hair follicle and immune privilege. J Investig Dermatology 2003; 2: 188-94.
Ito T, Ito N, Bettermann A, Tokura Y, Takigawa M, Paus R. Collapse and restoration of MHC class-I-dependent immune privilege: Exploiting the human hair follicle as a model. Am J Pathol 2004; 164(2): 623-34.
[] [PMID: 14742267]
Paus R, Slominski A, Czarnetzki BM. Is alopecia areata an autoimmune-response against melanogenesis-related proteins, exposed by abnormal MHC class I expression in the anagen hair bulb? Yale J Biol Med 1993; 66(6): 541-54.
[PMID: 7716973]
Randall VA. Is alopecia areata an autoimmune disease?. Lancet 2001; 358(9297): 1922-4.
[] [PMID: 11747911]
McElwee KJ, Tobin DJ, Bystryn JC, King LE Jr, Sundberg JP. Alopecia areata: An autoimmune disease?. Exp Dermatol 1999; 8(5): 371-9.
[] [PMID: 10536963]
Kalish RS, Gilhar A. Alopecia areata: Autoimmunity-the evidence is compelling. J Investig Dermatology. 2: 164-7.
Tang L, Cao L, Pelech S, Lui H, Shapiro J. Cytokines and signal transduction pathways mediated by anthralin in alopecia areata-affected Dundee experimental balding rats. J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc 2003; 1: 87-90.
Cetin ED, Savk E, Uslu M, Eskin M, Karul A. Investigation of the inflammatory mechanisms in alopecia areata. Am J Dermatopathol 2009; 31(1): 53-60.
[] [PMID: 19155726]
Hordinsky MK, Kennedy W, Wendelschafer-Crabb G, Lewis S. Structure and function of cutaneous nerves in alopecia areata. J Invest Dermatol 1995; 104(5)(Suppl.): 28S-9S.
[] [PMID: 7537784]
Paus R, Arck P. Neuroendocrine perspectives in alopecia areata: Does stress play a role? J Invest Dermatol 2009; 129(6): 1324-6.
[] [PMID: 19434088]
Grandolfo M, Biscazzi AM, Pipoli M. Alopecia areata and autoimmunity. G Ital Dermatol Venereol 2008; 143(5): 277-81.
[PMID: 18833068]
Hordinsky M, Ericson M. Autoimmunity: Alopecia areata. J Investig Dermatology. 1: 73-8.
Lutz G, Bauer R. Autoimmunity in alopecia areata. An assessment in 100 patients. Hautarzt 1988; 39(1): 5-11.
[PMID: 2965691]
Cunliffe WJ, Hall R, Stevenson CJ, Weightman D. Alopecia areata, thyroid disease and autoimmunity. Br J Dermatol 1969; 81(12): 877-81.
[] [PMID: 5359449]
Xing L, Dai Z, Jabbari A, et al. Alopecia areata is driven by cytotoxic T lymphocytes and is reversed by JAK inhibition. Nat Med 2014; 20(9): 1043-9.
[] [PMID: 25129481]
Verma DD, Verma S, McElwee KJ, Freyschmidt-Paul P, Hoffman R, Fahr A. Treatment of alopecia areata in the DEBR model using Cyclosporin A lipid vesicles. Eur J Dermatol 2004; 14(5): 332-8.
[PMID: 15358573]
Blaumeiser B, van der Goot I, Fimmers R, et al. Familial aggregation of alopecia areata. J Am Acad Dermatol 2006; 54(4): 627-32.
Dainichi T, Kabashima K. Alopecia areata: What’s new in epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and therapeutic options?. J Dermatol Sci 2017; 86(1): 3-12.
Rodriguez TA, Fernandes KE, Dresser KL, Duvic M. National Alopecia Areata Registry. Concordance rate of alopecia areata in identical twins supports both genetic and environmental factors. J Am Acad Dermatol 2010; 62(3): 525-7.
Scerri L, Pace JL. Identical twins with identical alopecia areata. J Am Acad Dermatol 1992; 27(5 Pt 1): 766-7.
[] [PMID: 1430401]
Carter PS, Banwell PE. Necrotising fasciitis: A new management algorithm based on clinical classification. Int Wound J 2004; 1(3): 189-98.
[] [PMID: 16722877]
Du Vivier A, Munro DD. Alopecia areata, autoimmunity, and Down’s syndrome. BMJ 1975; 1(5951): 191-2.
[] [PMID: 122906]
Friedmann PS. Alopecia areata and auto-immunity. Br J Dermatol 1981; 105(2): 153-7.
[] [PMID: 7284245]
Petukhova L, Duvic M, Hordinsky M, et al. Genome-wide association study in alopecia areata implicates both innate and adaptive immunity. Nature 2010; 466(7302): 113-7.
[] [PMID: 20596022]
Colombe BW, Price VH, Khoury EL, Garovoy MR, Lou CD. HLA class II antigen associations help to define two types of alopecia areata. J Am Acad Dermatol 1995; 33(5 Pt 1): 757-64.
[PMID: 7593774]
Colombe BW, Lou CD, Price VH. The genetic basis of alopecia areata: HLA associations with patchy alopecia areata versus alopecia totalis and alopecia universalis. J Investig Dermato Symp Proc 1999; 4(3): 216-9.
Welsh EA, Clark HH, Epstein SZ, Reveille JD, Duvic M. Human leukocyte antigen-DQB1*03 alleles are associated with alopecia areata. J Invest Dermatol 1994; 103(6): 758-63.
[] [PMID: 7798612]
Megiorni F, Pizzuti A, Mora B, et al. Genetic association of HLA-DQB1 and HLA-DRB1 polymorphisms with alopecia areata in the Italian population. Br J Dermatol 2011; 165(4): 823-7.
[] [PMID: 21692766]
Price VH, Colombe BW. Heritable factors distinguish two types of alopecia areata. Dermatol Clin 1996; 14(4): 679-89.
[] [PMID: 9238326]
Biran R, Zlotogorski A, Ramot Y. The genetics of alopecia areata: New approaches, new findings, new treatments. J Dermatol Sci 2015; 78: 11-20.
Petukhova L, Cabral RM, Mackay-Wiggan J, Clynes R, Christiano AM. The genetics of alopecia areata: What’s new and how will it help our patients? Dermatol Ther (Heidelb) 2011; 24(3): 326-36.
[] [PMID: 21689242]
Okhovat J-P, Marks DH, Manatis-Lornell A, Hagigeorges D, Locascio JJ, Senna MM. Association between alopecia areata, anxiety, and depression: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Acad Dermatol 2019; S0190-9622(19): 30890-4.
Yenin JZ, Serarslan G, Yönden Z, Ulutaş KT. Investigation of oxidative stress in patients with alopecia areata and its relationship with disease severity, duration, recurrence and pattern. Clin Exp Dermatol 2015; 40(6): 617-21.
Moreno-Arrones OM, Serrano-Villar S, Perez-Brocal V, et al. Analysis of the gut microbiota in alopecia areata: Identification of bacterial biomarkers. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2020; 34(2): 400-5.
Madani S, Shapiro J. Alopecia areata update. J Am Acad Dermatol 2000; 42(4): 549-66.
[] [PMID: 10727299]
Perini GI, Veller Fornasa C, Cipriani R, Bettin A, Zecchino F, Peserico A. Life events and alopecia areata. Psychother Psychosom 1984; 41(1): 48-52.
[] [PMID: 6701270]
Morales-Sánchez MA, Domínguez-Gómez MA, Jurado-Santa Cruz F, Peralta-Pedrero ML. Immunization and bacterial pathogens in the oropharynx as risk factors for alopecia areata. Actas Dermosifiliogr 2010; 101(5): 437-43.
[] [PMID: 20525487]
Tosti A, Bellavista S, Iorizzo M. Alopecia areata: A long term follow-up study of 191 patients. J Am Acad Dermatol 2006; 55(3): 438-41.
[] [PMID: 16908349]
Sharma VK, Dawn G, Kumar B. Profile of alopecia areata in Northern India. Int J Dermatol 1996; 35(1): 22-7.
[] [PMID: 8838924]
Shapiro J, Madani S. Alopecia areata: Diagnosis and management. Int J Dermatol 1999; 38(Suppl. 1): 19-24.
[] [PMID: 10369536]
Nowaczyk J, Makowska K, Rakowska A, Sikora M, Rudnicka L. Cyclosporine with and without systemic corticosteroids in treatment of alopecia areata: A systematic review. Dermatol Ther (Heidelb) 2020; 10(3): 387-99.
[] [PMID: 32270396]
Strazzulla LC, Wang EHC, Avila L, et al. Alopecia areata: Disease characteristics, clinical evaluation, and new perspectives on pathogenesis. J Am Acad Dermatol 2018; 78(1): 1-12.
Huang KP, Mullangi S, Guo Y, Qureshi AA. Autoimmune, atopic, and mental health comorbid conditions associated with alopecia areata in the United States. JAMA Dermatol 2013; 149(7): 789-94.
Barahmani N, Schabath MB, Duvic M. History of atopy or autoimmunity increases risk of alopecia areata. J Am Acad Dermatol 2009; 61(4): 581-91.
Manolache L, Benea V. Stress in patients with alopecia areata and vitiligo. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2007; 21(7): 921-8.
[] [PMID: 17659001]
Puavilai S, Puavilai G, Charuwichitratana S, Sakuntabhai A, Sriprachya-Anunt S. Prevalence of thyroid diseases in patients with alopecia areata. Int J Dermatol 1994; 33(9): 632-3.
[] [PMID: 8002158]
Werth VP, White WL, Sanchez MR, Franks AG. Incidence of alopecia areata in lupus erythematosus. Arch Dermatol 1992; 128(3): 368-71.
[] [PMID: 1550369]
Betz RC, Petukhova L, Ripke S, et al. Genome-wide meta-analysis in alopecia areata resolves HLA associations and reveals two new susceptibility loci. Nat Commun 2015; 6: 5966.
Liakopoulou M, Alifieraki T, Katideniou A, et al. Children with alopecia areata: Psychiatric symptomatology and life events. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1997; 36(5): 678-84.
[] [PMID: 9136503]
van der Steen P, Boezeman J, Duller P, Happle R. van der SP. Can alopecia areata be triggered by emotional stress? An uncontrolled evaluation of 178 patients with extensive hair loss. Acta Derm Venereol 1992; 72(4): 279-80.
[PMID: 1357886]
Colón EA, Popkin MK, Callies AL, Dessert NJ, Hordinsky MK. Lifetime prevalence of psychiatric disorders in patients with alopecia areata. Compr Psychiatry 1991; 32(3): 245-51.
[] [PMID: 1884604]
Corazza GR, Andreani ML, Venturo N, Bernardi M, Tosti A, Gasbarrini G. Celiac disease and alopecia areata: Report of a new association. Gastroenterology 1995; 109(4): 1333-7.
[] [PMID: 7557104]
Zampetti M, Filippetti R. Alopecia areata and celiac disease. G Ital Dermatol Venereol 2008; 143(2): 168.
[PMID: 18833045]
Fessatou S, Kostaki M, Karpathios T. Coeliac disease and alopecia areata in childhood. J Paediatr Child Health 2003; 39(2): 152-4.
[] [PMID: 12603809]
Tosti A, De Padova MP, Caponeri GM, Liverani L, Gargano N, Veronesi S. Nail changes and alopecia areata. G Ital Dermatol Venereol 1985; 120(3): 169-71.
[PMID: 4030012]
Sharma VK, Dawn G, Muralidhar S, Kumar B. Nail changes in 1000 Indian patients with alopecia areata. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 1998; 10(2): 189-91.
[] [PMID: 9553924]
Kasumagic-Halilovic E, Prohic A. Nail changes in alopecia areata: Frequency and clinical presentation. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2009; 23(2): 240-1.
[] [PMID: 18540984]
Leung AKC, Leong KF, Barankin B. Trachyonychia. J Pediatr 2020; 216: 239-9.
Inui S, Nakajima T, Nakagawa K, Itami S. Clinical significance of dermoscopy in alopecia areata: Analysis of 300 cases. Int J Dermatol 2008; 47(7): 688-93.
[] [PMID: 18613874]
Miteva M, Tosti A. Hair and scalp dermatoscopy. J Am Acad Dermatol 2012; 67(5): 1040-8.
Han A, Mirmirani P. Clinical approach to the patient with alopecia. Semin Cutan Med Surg 2006; 25(1): 11-23.
[] [PMID: 16616299]
Tokura Y, Sugita K, Kabashima K, Ito T, Yagi H. Alopecia universalis associated with impaired interleukin-4 production and low serum IgE level. J Am Acad Dermatol 2007; 57(2): S22-5.
[] [PMID: 17637364]
Goos M. The histopathology of alopecia areata. With special reference to the duration, location and progession of hair loss. Arch Dermatol Forsch 1971; 240(2): 160-72.
[] [PMID: 5549963]
Whiting DA. Histopathology of alopecia areata in horizontal sections of scalp biopsies. J Invest Dermatol 1995; 104(5): 26S-7S.
[] [PMID: 7738382]
Madani S, Shapiro J. The scalp biopsy: Making it more efficient. Dermatol Surg 1999; 25(7): 537-8.
[] [PMID: 10469109]
Whiting DA. Histopathologic features of alopecia areata: A new look. Arch Dermatol 2003; 139(12): 1555-9.
Christenson GA, Crow SJ. The characterization and treatment of trichotillomania. J Clin Psychiatry 1996; 57(Suppl. 8): 42-7.
[PMID: 8698680]
Radmanesh M, Shafiei S, Naderi AH. Isolated eyebrow and eyelash trichotillomania mimicking alopecia areata. Int J Dermatol 2006; 45(5): 557-60.
[] [PMID: 16700791]
Bruce TO, Barwick LW, Wright HH. Diagnosis and management of trichotillomania in children and adolescents. Paediatr Drugs 2005; 7(6): 365-76.
[] [PMID: 16356024]
Shelleh HH, Khan SA, Al-Hatiti HS. Trichotillomania or alopecia areata?. Int J Dermatol 2006; 45(10): 1196-8.
[] [PMID: 17040439]
Leung AKC, Hon KL, Leong KF, Barankin B, Lam JM. Tinea capitis: An updated review. Recent Pat Inflamm Allergy Drug Discov 2020; 14(1): 58-68.
[] [PMID: 31906842]
Turra N, Navarrete J, Magliano J, Bazzano C. Acquired trichorrhexis nodosa: How to diagnose it? Dermatol Online J 2018; 24(11): 13030.
Sonthalia S, Daulatabad D. Azathioprine-associated anagen effluvium. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2016; 82(3): 322-4.
[] [PMID: 27088942]
Leung AKC, Barankin B, Leong KF. An 8-year-old child with delayed diagnosis of Netherton syndrome. Case Rep Pediatr 2018; 2018: 9434916.
Zhao Y-L, Zhang R-Z. Congenital triangular alopecia: A brief report. Int J Trichology 2018; 10(6): 290-1.
Leung AKC, Barankin B. Incidence of congenital triangular alopecia. An Bras Dermatol 2016; 91(4): 556.
Messenger A, McKillop J, Farrant P, McDonagh A, Sladdenà M, Messenger A. British Association of Dermatologists’ guidelines for the management of alopecia areata 2012. Br J Dermatol 2012; 166(5): 916-26.
Charuwichitratana S, Wattanakrai P, Tanrattanakorn S. Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial in the treatment of alopecia areata with 0.25% desoximetasone cream. JAMA 2000; 136(10): 1276-7.
Kuldeep C, Singhal H, Khare AK, Mittal A, Gupta LK, Garg A. Randomized comparison of topical betamethasone valerate foam, intralesional triamcinolone acetonide and tacrolimus ointment in management of localized alopecia areata. Int J Trichology 2011; 3(1): 20-4.
Lenane P, MacArthur C, Parkin PC, et al. Clobetasol propionate, 0.05%, vs. hydrocortisone, 1%, for alopecia areata in children: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA Dermatol 2014; 150(1): 47-50.
Gill KA Jr, Baxter DL. Alopecia totalis. Treatment with fluocinolone acetonide. Arch Dermatol 1963; 87: 384-6.
[] [PMID: 13947877]
Tosti A, De Padova MP, Minghetti G, Veronesi S. Therapies versus placebo in the treatment of patchy alopecia areata. J Am Acad Dermatol 1986; 15(2 Pt 1): 209-10.
[] [PMID: 3528241]
Pascher F, Kurtin S, Andrade R. Assay of 0.2 percent fluocinolone acetonide cream for alopecia areata and totalis. Efficacy and side effects including histologic study of the ensuing localized acneform response. Dermatologica 1970; 141(3): 193-202.
[] [PMID: 4250339]
Montes LF. Topical halcinonide in alopecia areata and in alopecia totalis. J Cutan Pathol 1977; 4(2): 47-50.
[] [PMID: 915049]
Kassim JM, Shipman AR, Szczecinska W, et al. How effective is intralesional injection of triamcinolone acetonide compared with topical treatments in inducing and maintaining hair growth in patients with alopecia areata? A Critically Appraised Topic. Br J Dermatol 2014; 170(4): 766-1.
Hon K-LEL, Kam W-YCY, Leung T-FF, et al. Steroid fears in children with eczema. Acta Paediatr 2006; 95(11): 1451-5.
[] [PMID: 17062476]
Price VH, Willey A, Chen BK. Topical tacrolimus in alopecia areata. J Am Acad Dermatol 2005; 52(1): 138-9.
[] [PMID: 15627095]
Fiedler VC, Wendrow A, Szpunar GJ, Metzler C, DeVillez RL. Treatment-resistant alopecia areata. Response to combination therapy with minoxidil plus anthralin. Arch Dermatol 1990; 126(6): 756-9.
[] [PMID: 2140670]
Fiedler VC. Alopecia areata: Current therapy. J Invest Dermatol 1991; 96(5): 69S-70S.
[] [PMID: 2022876]
Price VH. Double-blind, placebo-controlled evaluation of topical minoxidil in extensive alopecia areata. J Am Acad Dermatol 1987; 16(3 Pt 2): 730-6.
[] [PMID: 3549809]
Olsen EA, Carson SC, Turney EA. Systemic steroids with or without 2% topical minoxidil in the treatment of alopecia areata. Arch Dermatol 1992; 128(11): 1467-73.
[] [PMID: 1444500]
Lucky AW, Piacquadio DJ, Ditre CM, et al. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of 5% and 2% topical minoxidil solutions in the treatment of female pattern hair loss. J Am Acad Dermatol 2004; 50(4): 541-3.
Arca E, Açikgöz G, Taştan HB, Köse O, Kurumlu Z. An open, randomized, comparative study of oral finasteride and 5% topical minoxidil in male androgenetic alopecia. Dermatology (Basel) 2004; 209(2): 117-25.
[] [PMID: 15316165]
Fiedler-Weiss VC. Topical minoxidil solution (1% and 5%) in the treatment of alopecia areata. J Am Acad Dermatol 1987; 16(3 Pt 2): 745-8.
[] [PMID: 3549811]
Georgala S, Befon A, Maniatopoulou E, Georgala C. Topical use of minoxidil in children and systemic side effects. Dermatology (Basel) 2007; 214(1): 101-2.
[] [PMID: 17191059]
Hoffmann R, Happle R. Topical immunotherapy in alopecia areata. What, how, and why?. Dermatol Clin 1996; 14(4): 739-44.
[] [PMID: 9238332]
Wasyłyszyn T, Kozłowski W, Zabielski SL. Changes in distribution pattern of CD8 lymphocytes in the scalp in alopecia areata during treatment with diphencyprone. Arch Dermatol Res 2007; 299(5-6): 231-7.
Rokhsar CK, Shupack JL, Vafai JJ, Washenik K. Efficacy of topical sensitizers in the treatment of alopecia areata. J Am Acad Dermatol 1998; 39(5 Pt 1): 751-61.
[] [PMID: 9810892]
Happle R. Antigenic competition as a therapeutic concept for alopecia areata. Arch Dermatol Res 1980; 267(1): 109-14.
[] [PMID: 6446265]
Lee S, Kim BJ, Lee YB, Lee WS. Hair regrowth outcomes of contact immunotherapy for patients with alopecia areata: A systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Dermatol 2018; 154(10): 1145-51.
[] [PMID: 30073292]
Choe SJ, Lee S, Lee H, Choi J, Lee WS. Efficacy of topical diphenylcyclopropenone maintenance treatment for patients with alopecia areata: A retrospective study. J Am Acad Dermatol 2018; 78(1): 205-7.
Wiseman MC, Shapiro J, MacDonald N, Lui H. Predictive model for immunotherapy of alopecia areata with diphencyprone. Arch Dermatol 2001; 137(8): 1063-8.
[PMID: 11493099]
Hull SM, Pepall L, Cunliffe WJ. Alopecia areata in children: Response to treatment with diphencyprone. Br J Dermatol 1991; 125(2): 164-8.
[] [PMID: 1911299]
Schuttelaar ML, Hamstra JJ, Plinck EP, et al. Alopecia areata in children: Treatment with diphencyprone. Br J Dermatol 1996; 135(4): 581-5.
[] [PMID: 8915150]
Tosti A, Guidetti MS, Bardazzi F, Misciali C. Long-term results of topical immunotherapy in children with alopecia totalis or alopecia universalis. J Am Acad Dermatol 1996; 35(2 Pt 1): 199-201.
[] [PMID: 8708020]
Sharma VK. Pulsed administration of corticosteroids in the treatment of alopecia areata. Int J Dermatol 1996; 35(2): 133-6.
[] [PMID: 8850047]
Fisher DA. Systemic steroids for treatment of alopecia areata. Arch Dermatol 1977; 113(12): 1731-2.
[] [PMID: 596915]
Alabdulkareem AS, Abahussein AA, Okoro A. Severe alopecia areata treated with systemic corticosteroids. Int J Dermatol 1998; 37(8): 622-4.
Kar BR, Handa S, Dogra S, Kumar B. Placebo-controlled oral pulse prednisolone therapy in alopecia areata. J Am Acad Dermatol 2005; 52(2): 287-90.
Vañó-Galván S, Hermosa-Gelbard Á, Sánchez-Neila N, et al. Pulse corticosteroid therapy with oral dexamethasone for the treatment of adult alopecia totalis and universalis. J Am Acad Dermatol 2016; 74(5): 1005-7.
Sharma VK, Muralidhar S. Treatment of widespread alopecia areata in young patients with monthly oral corticosteroid pulse. Pediatr Dermatol 1998; 15(4): 313-7.
[] [PMID: 9720702]
Friedli A, Labarthe MP, Engelhardt E, Feldmann R, Salomon D, Saurat JH. Pulse methylprednisolone therapy for severe alopecia areata: An open prospective study of 45 patients. J Am Acad Dermatol 1998; 39(4 Pt 1): 597-602.
[] [PMID: 9777767]
Seiter S, Ugurel S, Tilgen W, Reinhold U. High-dose pulse corticosteroid therapy in the treatment of severe alopecia areata. Dermatology (Basel) 2001; 202(3): 230-4.
[] [PMID: 11385229]
Assouly P, Reygagne P, Jouanique C, et al. Intravenous pulse methylprednisolone therapy for severe alopecia areata: An open study of 66 patients. Ann Dermatol Venereol 2003; 130(3): 326-30.
[PMID: 12746668]
Shapiro J, Lui H, Tron V, Ho V. Systemic cyclosporine and low- dose prednisone in the treatment of chronic severe alopecia areata: A clinical and immunopathologic evaluation. J Am Acad Dermatol 1997; 36(1): 114-7.
[] [PMID: 8996277]
Kim BJ, Min SU, Park KY, et al. Combination therapy of cyclosporine and methylprednisolone on severe alopecia areata. J Dermatolog Treat 2008; 19(4): 216-0.
Shaheedi-Dadras M, Karami A, Mollaei F, Moravvej H, Malekzad F. The effect of methylprednisolone pulse-therapy plus oral cyclosporine in the treatment of alopecia totalis and universalis. Arch Iran Med 2008; 11(1): 90-3.
[PMID: 18154427]
Yeo IK, Ko EJ, No YA, et al. Comparison of high-dose corticosteroid pulse therapy and combination therapy using oral cyclosporine with low-dose corticosteroid in severe alopecia areata. Ann Dermatol 2015; 27(6): 676-81.
Phan K, Ramachandran V, Sebaratnam DF. Methotrexate for alopecia areata: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Acad Dermatol 2019; 80(1): 120-7.
Liu LY, Craiglow BG, Dai F, King BA. Tofacitinib for the treatment of severe alopecia areata and variants: A study of 90 patients. J Am Acad Dermatol 2017; 76(1): 22-8.
Park H-S, Kim M-W, Lee JS, et al. Oral tofacitinib monotherapy in Korean patients with refractory moderate-to-severe alopecia areata: A case series. J Am Acad Dermatol 2017; 77(5): 978-80.
Crowley EL, Fine SC, Katipunan KK, Gooderham MJ. The use of janus kinase inhibitors in alopecia areata: A review of the literature. J Cutan Med Surg 2019; 23: 289-97.
Ismail FF, Sinclair R. JAK inhibition in the treatment of alopecia areata - a promising new dawn?. Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol 2020; 13: pp. 43-51.
Ibrahim O, Bayart CB, Hogan S, Piliang M, Bergfeld WF. Treatment of alopecia areata with tofacitinib. JAMA dermatology 2017; 153(6): 600-2.
Gilhar A, Keren A, Paus R. JAK inhibitors and alopecia areata. Lancet (London, England) 2019; 393(10196): 318-9.
Craiglow BG, King BA. Tofacitinib for the treatment of alopecia areata in preadolescent children. J Am Acad Dermatol 2019; 80(2): 568-70.
[] [PMID: 30195571]
Castelo-Soccio L. Experience with oral tofacitinib in 8 adolescent patients with alopecia universalis. J Am Acad Dermatol 2017; 76(4): 754-5.
Liu LY, King BA. Ruxolitinib for the treatment of severe alopecia areata. J Am Acad Dermatol 2019; 80(2): 566-8.
Mackay-Wiggan J, Jabbari A, Nguyen N, et al. Oral ruxolitinib induces hair regrowth in patients with moderate-to-severe alopecia areata. JCI Insight 2016; 1(15): e89790.
Olamiju B, Friedmann A, King B. Treatment of severe alopecia areata with baricitinib. JAAD Case Rep 2019; 5(10): 892-4.
[] [PMID: 31681829]
Papp KA, Krueger JG, Feldman SR, et al. Tofacitinib, an oral Janus kinase inhibitor, for the treatment of chronic plaque psoriasis: Long-term efficacy and safety results from 2 randomized phase-III studies and 1 open-label long-term extension study. J Am Acad Dermatol 2016; 74(5): 841-50.
Wollenhaupt J, Silverfield J. Safety and efficacy of tofacitinib, an oral janus kinase inhibitor, for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in open-lablel, longterm extension studies. J Rheumatol 2014; 41(5): 837-52.
Craiglow BG, Tavares D, King BA. Topical ruxolitinib for the treatment of alopecia universalis. JAMA Dermatology 2016; 152(4): 490-1.
Bokhari L, Sinclair R. Treatment of alopecia universalis with topical Janus kinase inhibitors - a double blind, placebo, and active controlled pilot study. Int J Dermatol 2018; 57(12): 1464-70.
Liu LY, Craiglow BG, King BA. Tofacitinib 2% ointment, a topical Janus kinase inhibitor, for the treatment of alopecia areata: A pilot study of 10 patients. J Am Acad Dermatol 2018; 78(2): 403-4.
Putterman E, Castelo-Soccio L. Topical 2% tofacitinib for children with alopecia areata, alopecia totalis, and alopecia universalis. J Am Acad Dermatol 2018; 78(6): 1207-9.
Ross EK, Bolduc C, Lui H, Shapiro J. Lack of efficacy of topical latanoprost in the treatment of eyebrow alopecia areata. J Am Acad Dermatol 2005; 53(6): 1095-6.
[] [PMID: 16310083]
Roseborough I, Lee H, Chwalek J, Stamper RL, Price VH. Lack of efficacy of topical latanoprost and bimatoprost ophthalmic solutions in promoting eyelash growth in patients with alopecia areata. J Am Acad Dermatol 2009; 60(4): 705-6.
[] [PMID: 19293023]
Coronel-Pérez IM, Rodríguez-Rey EM, Camacho-Martínez FM. Latanoprost in the treatment of eyelash alopecia in alopecia areata universalis. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2010; 24(4): 481-5.
Trink A, Sorbellini E, Bezzola P, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo- and active-controlled, half-head study to evaluate the effects of platelet-rich plasma on alopecia areata. Br J Dermatol 2013; 169(3): 690-4.
[] [PMID: 23607773]
Mitchell AJ, Douglass MC. Topical photochemotherapy for alopecia areata. J Am Acad Dermatol 1985; 12(4): 644-9.
[] [PMID: 3989026]
Healy E, Rogers S. PUVA treatment for alopecia areata-does it work? A retrospective review of 102 cases. Br J Dermatol 1993; 129(1): 42-4.
[] [PMID: 8369209]
Taylor CR, Hawk JL. PUVA treatment of alopecia areata partialis, totalis and universalis: Audit of 10 years’ experience at St John’s Institute of Dermatology. Br J Dermatol 1995; 133(6): 914-8.
[] [PMID: 8547044]
Al-Mutairi N. 308-nm excimer laser for the treatment of alopecia areata in children. Pediatr Dermatol 2009; 26(5): 547-50.
[] [PMID: 19840308]
Byun JW, Moon JH, Bang CY, Shin J, Choi GS. Effectiveness of 308-nm excimer laser therapy in treating alopecia areata, determined by examining the treated sides of selected alopecic patches. Dermatology 2015; 231(1): 70-6.
Zakaria W, Passeron T, Ostovari N, Lacour J-P, Ortonne J-P. Effectiveness of 308-nm excimer laser therapy in treating alopecia areata, determined by examining the treated sides of selected alopecic patches. Dermatology 2004; 231(1): 70-6.
Andreoli EM. Types of stress within child alopecia. Dermatology Psychosom 2002; 3(1): 26-9.
Peled JU. Psychosocial counseling may be best treatment for hair loss. Am Fam Physician 2004; 69(6): 1362.
[PMID: 15053403]
Alsantali A. Alopecia areata: A new treatment plan. Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol 2011; 4: 107-15.
[] [PMID: 21833161]
Vestey JP, Savin JA. Natural history of severe alopecia areata. Br J Dermatol 1987; 117(4): 531.
[] [PMID: 3314975]
Sahn EE. Alopecia areata in childhood. Semin Dermatol 1995; 14(1): 9-14.
[] [PMID: 7742246]
De Waard-van der Spek FB, Oranje AP, De Raeymaecker DM, Peereboom-Wynia JD. Juvenile versus maturity-onset alopecia areata-a comparative retrospective clinical study. Clin Exp Dermatol 1989; 14(6): 429-33.
[] [PMID: 2605805]
Mitchell R, Sherker S, Cavanagh M, Eager D. Falls from playground equipment: Will the new Australian playground safety standard make a difference and how will we tell? Health Promot J Austr 2007; 18(2): 98-104.
[] [PMID: 17663656]
Tang L, Lui H, Sundberg JP, Bissonnette R, McLean DI, Shapiro J. Restoration of hair growth with topical diphencyprone in mouse and rat models of alopecia areata. J Am Acad Dermatol 2003; 49(6): 1013-9.
[] [PMID: 14639378]
Tang L, Cao L, Bernardo O, et al. Topical mechlorethamine restores autoimmune-arrested follicular activity in mice with an alopecia areata-like disease by targeting infiltrated lymphocytes. J Invest Dermatol 2003; 120(3): 400-6.
[] [PMID: 12603852]
Tang L, Cao L, Sundberg JP, Lui H, Shapiro J. Restoration of hair growth in mice with an alopecia areata-like disease using topical anthralin. Exp Dermatol 2004; 13(1): 5-10.
[] [PMID: 15009110]
Shapiro J, Sundberg JP, Bissonnette R, et al. Alopecia areata-like hair loss in C3H/HeJ mice and DEBR rats can be reversed using topical diphencyprone. J Investig Dermatology 1999; 3: 239.
Tang L, Sundberg JP, Lui H, Shapiro J. Old wine in new bottles: Reviving old therapies for alopecia areata using rodent models. J Investig Dermatology 2003; 2: 212-6.
van den Biggelaar FJ, Smolders J, Jansen JF. Complementary and alternative medicine in alopecia areata. Am J Clin Dermatol 2010; 11(1): 11-20.
[] [PMID: 20000871]
Yano S, Nakamura K, Okochi H, Tamaki K. Analysis of the expression of cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen on the peripheral blood and cutaneous lymphocytes of alopecia areata patients. Acta Derm Venereol 2002; 82(2): 82-5.
[] [PMID: 12125957]
Dillon SR, Sprecher C, Hammond A, et al. Interleukin 31, a cytokine produced by activated T cells, induces dermatitis in mice. Nat Immunol 2004; 5(7): 752-60.
[] [PMID: 15184896]
Siadak AW, Bilsborough J, Rene S. Methods of using IL-31 monoclonal antibodies to reduce inflammation. US20090220417, 2009.
Siadak AW, Bilsborough J, Rene S. Variable region sequences of IL-31 monoclonal antibodies and methods of use. US20100008909, 2010.
Sierra M, Labuda T, Tanimoto A, Shinozaki Y. Treatment of alopecia areata. US20180263986, 2018.
Cauwenbergh G, Johnson K. Methods for the treatment of alopecia areata utilizing gene modulation approaches. US20180263925, 2018.
Kyoto E. Agent for the treatment of alopecia. US20180133289, 2018.
Anderson DR, Hockerman SL, Blinn JR, Jacobsen EJ. Pyrazolyl pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyrmidine-5-carboxylate analogs and methods of making the same. US20190135807, 2019.
Christiano AM, Clynes R. Methods for treating hair loss disorders. US20180021235, 2018.
Simkin GO, Richter AM, Hunt DWC, North JR, Lutwyche P, Boch RE. Photodynamic therapy for the treatment of hair loss. EP1443964, 2008.
Lee HK. Alopecia healing apparatus using laser and LED. US7722655, 2010.
Jia X, Jia J. Compound Chinese medicinal oral preparation for treating alopecia areata and alopecia and its preparing method. CN1569072, 2005.
Bruning E, Stone VL, Zhao R. Compositions and methods of inducing hair growth utilizing Continus coggygria. US7704533, 2010.
Millet IA. Dermatological pharmaceutical composition for the treatment of skin inflammation diseases, such as dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, vitiligo, alopecia areata, acne, psoriasis, pruritus or combinations of same. CN102123705, 2011.
Jacqueline ShanSandra MillerPunithavathi DURAIRAJ Use of a ginseng extract to prevent and treat alopecia areata. WO2013059942, 2013.
Liu Houqi, Tong M, Wang F, et al. Hair regeneration method for mesenchymal stem cell-induced alopecia areata and application. CN105769911, 2016.

Rights & Permissions Print Cite
© 2024 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy