Generic placeholder image

Current Nanomedicine


ISSN (Print): 2468-1873
ISSN (Online): 2468-1881

Review Article (Mini-Review)

A Short Review on the Important Aspects Involved in Preparation, Characterization and Application of Nanostructured Lipid Carriers for Drug Delivery

Author(s): Tanvi Kadam* and Surendra Agrawal

Volume 10 , Issue 3 , 2020

Page: [188 - 207] Pages: 20

DOI: 10.2174/2468187310999200728140914

Price: $65


Background: The development of modern medical and pharmaceutical science has garnered lots of attention due to the development of targeted therapy and precision medicine. The current focus of the researchers is on developing strategies which provide the maximum therapeutic benefits with minimal adverse effects. In this scenario, nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) have gained prominence because of their ability to improve the therapeutic properties of the drugs.

Objective: In this review, we focus on some of the important methods involved in the preparation and characterization of the NLCs. We also discuss the application of NLC as a drug delivery system through different routes of administration and its role in overcoming the physiological and anatomical barriers.

Methods: The literature was collected from different scientific browsers like sciencedirect, google scholar, pubmed and a total of 155 articles were read and analysed for the content.

Results: The NLC improve the solubility and bioavailability of the drug, prolong the release and residence time and delay clearance. They also protect the drugs from enzymatic degradation and allow them to pass through different anatomical and physiological barriers.

Conclusion: Though the use of NLCs has been reported across different therapeutic indications through various routes of administration, this success at the laboratory level has not gone to the next stage. One of the reasons for the failure of NLC formulations to progress to the next level could be due to toxicity caused by the accumulation of NLCs in organs. Hence, in order to utilize this strategy to its maximum potential, further research is inevitable.

Keywords: Nanostructured lipid carriers, application of NLC, critical factor in NLC formulation, methods for preparation of NLC, drug delivery, accumulation of NLC.

Graphical Abstract
Gupta M, Sharma V. Targeted drug delivery system: A review. Research Journal of Chemical Sciences 2011; 1: 134-8.
Mishra N, Pant P, Porwal A, Jaiswal J, Samad MA, Tiwari S. Targeted Drug Delivery: A Review. Am. J PharmTech Res 2016; 6(1): 1-24.
Carmona-Ribeiro AM. Biomimetic nanoparticles: preparation, characterization and biomedical applications. Int J Nanomedicine 2010; 5: 249-59.
[] [PMID: 20463941]
Fang CL, Al-Suwayeh SA, Fang JY. Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) for drug delivery and targeting. Recent Pat Nanotechnol 2013; 7(1): 41-55.
[] [PMID: 22946628]
Mehnert W, Mäder K. Solid lipid nanoparticles: production, characterization and applications. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2001; 47(2-3): 165-96.
[] [PMID: 11311991]
Mudshinge SR, Deore AB, Patil S, Bhalgat CM. Nanoparticles: Emerging carriers for drug delivery. Saudi Pharm J 2011; 19(3): 129-41.
[] [PMID: 23960751]
Irving B. Nanoparticle drug delivery systems. Inno Pharm Biotechnol 2007; 24: 58-62.
Wilhelm S, Tavares AJ, Dai Q, et al. Analysis of Nanoparticle Delivery to Tumours. Nat Rev Mater 2016; 1: 16014.
Shi J, Kantoff PW, Wooster R, Farokhzad OC. Cancer nanomedicine: progress, challenges and opportunities. Nat Rev Cancer 2017; 17(1): 20-37.
[] [PMID: 27834398]
Dvir T, Bauer M, Schroeder A, et al. Nanoparticles targeting the infarcted heart. Nano Lett 2011; 11(10): 4411-4.
[] [PMID: 21899318]
Suarez S, Almutairi A, Christman KL. Micro- and nanoparticles for treating cardiovascular disease. Biomater Sci 2015; 3(4): 564-80.
[] [PMID: 26146548]
Wohlfart S, Gelperina S, Kreuter J. Transport of drugs across the blood-brain barrier by nanoparticles. J Control Release 2012; 161(2): 264-73.
[] [PMID: 21872624]
Saraiva C, Praça C, Ferreira R, Santos T, Ferreira L, Bernardino L. Nanoparticle-mediated brain drug delivery: Overcoming blood-brain barrier to treat neurodegenerative diseases. J Control Release 2016; 235: 34-47.
[] [PMID: 27208862]
Sawant KK, Dodiya SS. Recent advances and patents on solid lipid nanoparticles. Recent Pat Drug Deliv Formul 2008; 2(2): 120-35.
[] [PMID: 19075903]
Fornaguera C, Solans C. Analytical methods to characterize and purify polymeric nanoparticles. Hindawi Int J Polym Sci 2018; pp. 1-10.
Müller RH, Mäder K, Gohla S. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) for controlled drug delivery - a review of the state of the art. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2000; 50(1): 161-77.
[] [PMID: 10840199]
Jores K, Mehnert W, Mäder K. Physicochemical investigations on solid lipid nanoparticles and on oil-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles: a nuclear magnetic resonance and electron spin resonance study. Pharm Res 2003; 20(8): 1274-83.
[] [PMID: 12948026]
Müller RH, Radtke M, Wissing SA. Nanostructured lipid matrices for improved microencapsulation of drugs. Int J Pharm 2002; 242(1-2): 121-8.
[] [PMID: 12176234]
Puri A, Loomis K, Smith B, et al. Lipid-based nanoparticles as pharmaceutical drug carriers: from concepts to clinic. Crit Rev Ther Drug Carrier Syst 2009; 26(6): 523-80.
[] [PMID: 20402623]
Domingo C, Saurina J. An overview of the analytical characterization of nanostructured drug delivery systems: towards green and sustainable pharmaceuticals: a review. Anal Chim Acta 2012; 744: 8-22.
[] [PMID: 22935368]
Pardeike J, Hommoss A, Müller RH. Lipid nanoparticles (SLN, NLC) in cosmetic and pharmaceutical dermal products. Int J Pharm 2009; 366(1-2): 170-84.
[] [PMID: 18992314]
Liu CH, Wu CT. Optimization of nanostructured lipid carriers for lutein delivery. Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp 2010; 353: 149-56.
Sahu MK, Soni GC, Prajapati SK. Nanostructured Lipid Carrier: The second generation of solid lipid nanoparticle. IJPRS 2012; 1(3): 224-35.
Khosa A, Reddi S, Saha RN. Nanostructured lipid carriers for site-specific drug delivery. Biomed Pharmacother 2018; 103: 598-613.
[] [PMID: 29677547]
Radtke M, Muller RH. Nanostructured lipid carriers: the new generation of lipid drug carriers. New Drugs 2001; 2: 48-52.
Jenning V, Thünemann AF, Gohla SH. Characterisation of a novel solid lipid nanoparticle carrier system based on binary mixtures of liquid and solid lipids. Int J Pharm 2000; 199(2): 167-77.
[] [PMID: 10802410]
Constantinides PP, Tustian A, Kessler DR. Tocol emulsions for drug solubilization and parenteral delivery. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2004; 56(9): 1243-55.
[] [PMID: 15109767]
Tsai MJ, Wu PC, Huang YB, et al. Baicalein loaded in tocol nanostructured lipid carriers (tocol NLCs) for enhanced stability and brain targeting. Int J Pharm 2012; 423(2): 461-70.
[] [PMID: 22193056]
Averina ES, Seewald G, Müller RH, Radnaeva LD, Popov DV. Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) on the basis of Siberian pine (Pinus sibirica) seed oil. Pharmazie 2010; 65(1): 25-31.
[PMID: 20187575]
Averina ES, Müller RH, Popov DV, Radnaeva LD. Physical and chemical stability of nanostructured lipid drug carriers (NLC) based on natural lipids from Baikal region (Siberia, Russia). Pharmazie 2011; 66(5): 348-56.
[PMID: 21699068]
Parhi R, Suresh P. Production of solid lipid nanoparticles-drug loading and release mechanism. J Chem Pharm Res 2010; 2: 211-27.
Mehnert W, Mäder K. Solid lipid nanoparticles. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2012; 64: 83-101.
[] [PMID: 11311991]
Souto EB, Müller RH. Investigation of the factors influencing the incorporation of clotrimazole in SLN and NLC prepared by hot high-pressure homogenization. J Microencapsul 2006; 23(4): 377-88.
[] [PMID: 16854814]
Joshi M, Patravale V. Nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) based gel of celecoxib. Int J Pharm 2008; 346(1-2): 124-32.
[] [PMID: 17651933]
Gasco MR. Method for producing solid lipid microspheres having a narrow size distribution US5250236 1993.
Xia Q, Hao X, Lu Y, et al. Production of drug-loaded lipid nanoparticles based on phase behaviors of special hot microemulsions. Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp 2008; 313-314: 27-30.
Liu D, Jiang S, Shen H, Qin S, Liu J, Zhang Q. Diclofenac sodium-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles prepared by emulsion/solvent evaporation method. J Nanopart Res 2011; 13(6): 2375-86.
Das S, Chaudhury A. Recent advances in lipid nanoparticle formulations with solid matrix for oral drug delivery. AAPS PharmSciTech 2011; 12(1): 62-76.
[] [PMID: 21174180]
Liu K, Sun J, Wang Y, He Y, Gao K, He Z. Preparation and characterization of 10-hydroxycamptothecin loaded nanostructured lipid carriers. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2008; 34(5): 465-71.
[] [PMID: 18473227]
Sun M, Nie S, Pan X, Zhang R, Fan Z, Wang S. Quercetin-nanostructured lipid carriers: characteristics and anti-breast cancer activities in vitro. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2014; 113: 15-24.
[] [PMID: 24060926]
Abdel-Mottaleb MMA, Neumann D, Lamprecht A. Lipid nanocapsules for dermal application: a comparative study of lipid-based versus polymer-based nanocarriers. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2011; 79(1): 36-42.
[] [PMID: 21558002]
Thatipamula R, Palem C, Gannu R, Mudragada S, Yamsani M. Formulation and in vitro characterization of domperidone loaded solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers. Daru 2011; 19(1): 23-32.
[PMID: 22615636]
Souto EB, Müller RH. SLN and NLC for topical delivery of ketoconazole. J Microencapsul 2005; 22(5): 501-10.
[] [PMID: 16361193]
Pirooznia N, Hasannia S, Lotfi AS, Ghanei M. Encapsulation of alpha-1 antitrypsin in PLGA nanoparticles: in vitro characterization as an effective aerosol formulation in pulmonary diseases. J Nanobiotechnology 2012; 10: 20.
[] [PMID: 22607686]
McCall RL, Sirianni RW. PLGA nanoparticles formed by single- or double-emulsion with vitamin E-TPGS J Vis Exp 2013; 51015(82): 51015.
[] [PMID: 24429733]
Lee YS, Johnson PJ, Robbins PT, Bridson RH. Production of nanoparticles-in-microparticles by a double emulsion method: a comprehensive study. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2013; 83(2): 168-73.
[] [PMID: 23153669]
Iqbal M, Zafar N, Fessi H, Elaissari A. Double emulsion solvent evaporation techniques used for drug encapsulation. Int J Pharm 2015; 496(2): 173-90.
[] [PMID: 26522982]
Shrimal P, Jadeja G, Patel S. A review on novel methodologies for drug nanoparticle preparation: Microfluidic approach. Chem Eng Res Des 2020; 153: 728-56.
Obeidat WM, Schwabe K, Müller RH, Keck CM. Preservation of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC). Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2010; 76(1): 56-67.
[] [PMID: 20452422]
Xia D, Shrestha N, van de Streek J, Mu H, Mingshi Y. Spray drying of fenofibrate loaded nanostructured lipid carriers. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 2016; 11(4): 507-15.
Mathpal D, Garg T, Rath G, Goyal AK. Development and characterization of spray dried microparticles for pulmonary delivery of antifungal drug. Curr Drug Deliv 2015; 12(4): 464-71.
[] [PMID: 25808185]
Safwat S, Ishak RAH, Hathout RM, Mortada ND. Nanostructured lipid carriers loaded with simvastatin: effect of PEG/glycerides on characterization, stability, cellular uptake efficiency and in vitro cytotoxicity. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2017; 43(7): 1112-25.
[] [PMID: 28276784]
Patel RJ, Patel ZP. Formulation optimization and evaluation of nanostructured lipid carriers containing valsartan. IJPSN 2013; 6(2): 2077-86.
Ingvarsson PT, Yang M, Nielsen HM, Rantanen J, Foged C. Stabilization of liposomes during drying. Expert Opin Drug Deliv 2011; 8(3): 375-88.
[] [PMID: 21294603]
Lee YY, Wu JX, Yang M, Young PM, van den Berg F, Rantanen J. Particle size dependence of polymorphism in spray-dried mannitol. Eur J Pharm Sci 2011; 44(1-2): 41-8.
[] [PMID: 21699976]
Yang M, Yamamoto H, Kurashima H, et al. Design and evaluation of inhalable chitosan-modified poly (DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanocomposite particles. Eur J Pharm Sci 2012; 47(1): 235-43.
[] [PMID: 22683651]
Lv Q, Yu A, Xi Y, et al. Development and evaluation of penciclovir-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles for topical delivery. Int J Pharm 2009; 372(1-2): 191-8.
[] [PMID: 19429280]
Jores K, Mehnert W, Drechsler M, Bunjes H, Johann C, Mäder K. Investigations on the structure of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and oil-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles by photon correlation spectroscopy, field-flow fractionation and transmission electron microscopy. J Control Release 2004; 95(2): 217-27.
[] [PMID: 14980770]
Zheng M, Falkeborg M, Zheng Y, Yang T. Formulation and characterization of nanostructured lipid carriers containing a mixed lipids core. Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp 2013; 430: 76-84.
Fang JY, Fang CL, Liu CH, Su YH. Lipid nanoparticles as vehicles for topical psoralen delivery: solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) versus nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC). Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2008; 70(2): 633-40.
[] [PMID: 18577447]
Weber S, Zimmer A, Pardeike J. Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLN) and Nanostructured Lipid Carriers (NLC) for pulmonary application: a review of the state of the art. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2014; 86(1): 7-22.
[] [PMID: 24007657]
Kovacevic A, Savic S, Vuleta G, Müller RH, Keck CM. Polyhydroxy surfactants for the formulation of lipid nanoparticles (SLN and NLC): effects on size, physical stability and particle matrix structure. Int J Pharm 2011; 406(1-2): 163-72.
[] [PMID: 21219990]
Stetefeld J, McKenna SA, Patel TR. Dynamic light scattering: a practical guide and applications in biomedical sciences. Biophys Rev 2016; 8(4): 409-27.
[] [PMID: 28510011]
Xu R. Progress in nanoparticles characterization: sizing and zeta potential measurement. Particuology 2008; 6(2): 112-5.
Üner M. Characterization and imaging of solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriersHandbook of Nanoparticles 2016; 117-41.
Tamjidi F, Shahedi M, Varshosaz J. Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC): a potential delivery system for bioactive food molecules. Innov Food Sci Emerg Technol 2013; 19: 29-43.
Clogston JD, Patri AK. Zeta potential measurement Characterization of nanoparticles intended for drug delivery methods in molecular biology (Methods and Protocols). Humana Press 2011; Vol. 697: pp. 63-70.
Honary S, Zahir F. Effect of zeta potential on the properties of nano-drug delivery systems - A Review (Part 1). Trop J Pharm Res 2013; 12(2): 255-64.
Parveen S, Sahoo SK. Polymeric nanoparticles for cancer therapy. J Drug Target 2008; 16(2): 108-23.
[] [PMID: 18274932]
Moghimi SM, Hunter AC, Andresen TL. Factors controlling nanoparticle pharmacokinetics: an integrated analysis and perspective. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 2012; 52(1): 481-503.
[] [PMID: 22035254]
Truong NP, Whittaker MR, Mak CW, Davis TP. The importance of nanoparticle shape in cancer drug delivery. Expert Opin Drug Deliv 2015; 12(1): 129-42.
[] [PMID: 25138827]
Iqbal MA, Md S, Sahni JK, Baboota S, Dang S, Ali J. Nanostructured lipid carriers system: recent advances in drug delivery. J Drug Target 2012; 20(10): 813-30.
[] [PMID: 22931500]
Barbosa JP, Neves AR, Silva AM, Barbosa MA, Reis MS, Santos SG. Nanostructured lipid carriers loaded with resveratrol modulate human dendritic cells. Int J Nanomedicine 2016; 11: 3501-16.
[] [PMID: 27555771]
Klang V, Valenta C, Matsko NB. Electron microscopy of pharmaceutical systems. Micron 2013; 44: 45-74.
[] [PMID: 22921788]
Khan S, Shaharyar M, Fazil M, Baboota S, Ali J. Tacrolimus-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers for oral delivery - Optimization of production and characterization. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2016; 108: 277-88.
[] [PMID: 27449630]
Pinto MF, Moura CC, Nunes C, Segundo MA, Costa Lima SA, Reis S. A new topical formulation for psoriasis: development of methotrexate-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers. Int J Pharm 2014; 477(1-2): 519-26.
[] [PMID: 25445970]
Esposito E, Ravani L, Drechsler M, et al. Cannabinoid antagonist in nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs): design, characterization and in vivo study. Mater Sci Eng C 2015; 48: 328-36.
[] [PMID: 25579930]
Cortesi R, Valacchi G, Muresan XM, et al. Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) for the delivery of natural molecules with antimicrobial activity: production, characterisation and in vitro studies. J Microencapsul 2017; 34(1): 63-72.
[] [PMID: 28097914]
Shah R, Eldridge D, Palombo E. Lipid nanoparticles: production, characterization and stability. Springer International Publishing 2015; pp. 11-22.
Sato K. Crystallization behaviour of fats and lipids—a review. Chem Eng Sci 2001; 56: 2255-65.
MacNaughtan W, Farhat IA, Himawan C, Starov VM, Stapley AGF. A differential scanning calorimetry study of the crystallization kinetics of the crystallization kinetics of tristearin–tripalmitin mixtures. J Am Oil Chem Soc 2006; 83: 1-9.
Hu FQ, Jiang SP, Du YZ, Yuan H, Ye YQ, Zeng S. Preparation and characteristics of monostearin nanostructured lipid carriers. Int J Pharm 2006; 314(1): 83-9.
[] [PMID: 16563671]
Castelli F, Puglia C, Sarpietro MG, Rizza L, Bonina F. Characterization of indomethacin-loaded lipid nanoparticles by differential scanning calorimetry. Int J Pharm 2005; 304(1-2): 231-8.
[] [PMID: 16188405]
Yuan H, Wang LL, Du YZ, You J, Hu FQ, Zeng S. Preparation and characteristics of nanostructured lipid carriers for control-releasing progesterone by melt-emulsification. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2007; 60(2): 174-9.
[] [PMID: 17656075]
Torchilin V, Amiji MM. Handbook of Materials for Nanomedicine. Pan Stanford Publishing 2010.
Sesto Cabral ME, Ramos AN, Cabrera CA, Valdez JC, González SN. Equipment and method for in vitro release measurements on topical dosage forms. Pharm Dev Technol 2015; 20(5): 619-25.
[] [PMID: 25318476]
Beloqui A, Solinís MÁ, Rodríguez-Gascón A, Almeida AJ, Préat V. Nanostructured lipid carriers: Promising drug delivery systems for future clinics. Nanomedicine (Lond) 2016; 12(1): 143-61.
[] [PMID: 26410277]
Lim WM, Rajinikanth PS, Mallikarjun C, Kang YB. Formulation and delivery of itraconazole to the brain using a nanolipid carrier system. Int J Nanomedicine 2014; 9: 2117-26.
[] [PMID: 24833900]
Kreuter J. Drug delivery to the central nervous system by polymeric nanoparticles: what do we know? Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2014; 71: 2-14.
[] [PMID: 23981489]
Joseph E, Saha RN. Advances in brain targeted drug delivery: nanoparticulate systems. J Pharm Sci Technol 2013; 3(1): 1-8.
Chen Y, Pan L, Jiang M, Li D, Jin L. Nanostructured lipid carriers enhance the bioavailability and brain cancer inhibitory efficacy of curcumin both in vitro and in vivo. Drug Deliv 2016; 23(4): 1383-92.
[] [PMID: 26066035]
Subramony JA. Apomorphine in dopaminergic therapy. Mol Pharm 2006; 3(4): 380-5.
[] [PMID: 16889431]
Hsu SH, Wen CJ, Al-Suwayeh SA, Chang HW, Yen TC, Fang JY. Physicochemical characterization and in vivo bioluminescence imaging of nanostructured lipid carriers for targeting the brain: apomorphine as a model drug. Nanotechnology 2010; 21(40)405101
[] [PMID: 20823498]
Liu C, Wu J, Xu K, et al. Neuroprotection by baicalein in ischemic brain injury involves PTEN/AKT pathway. J Neurochem 2010; 112(6): 1500-12.
[] [PMID: 20050973]
Schäfer-Korting M, Mehnert W, Korting HC. Lipid nanoparticles for improved topical application of drugs for skin diseases. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2007; 59(6): 427-43.
[] [PMID: 17544165]
Souto EB, Almeida AJ, Müller RH. Lipid nanoparticles (SLN®, NLC®) for cutaneous drug delivery: structure, protection and skin effects. J Biomed Nanotechnol 2007; 3: 317-31.
Cevc G. Lipid vesicles and other colloids as drug carriers on the skin. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2004; 56(5): 675-711.
[] [PMID: 15019752]
Müller RH, Petersen RD, Hommoss A, Pardeike J. Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) in cosmetic dermal products. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2007; 59(6): 522-30.
[] [PMID: 17602783]
Silva LA, Andrade LM, de Sá FA, et al. Clobetasol-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers for epidermal targeting. J Pharm Pharmacol 2016; 68(6): 742-50.
[] [PMID: 27061573]
Gratieri T, Krawczyk-Santos AP, da Rocha PBR, et al. SLN- and NLC-encapsulating antifungal agents: skin drug delivery and their unexplored potential for treating onychomycosis. Curr Pharm Des 2017.
[] [PMID: 29141535]
Agrawal Y, Petkar KC, Sawant KK. Development, evaluation and clinical studies of Acitretin loaded nanostructured lipid carriers for topical treatment of psoriasis. Int J Pharm 2010; 401(1-2): 93-102.
[] [PMID: 20858539]
Nam SH, Ji XY, Park JS. Investigation of tacrolimus loaded nanostructured lipid carriers for topical drug delivery. Bull Korean Chem Soc 2011; 32(3): 956-60.
Patel D, Dasgupta S, Dey S, Ramani YR, Ray S, Mazumder B. Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC)-based gel for the topical delivery of aceclofenac: preparation, characterization, and in vivo evaluation. Sci Pharm 2012; 80(3): 749-64.
[] [PMID: 23008819]
Üner M, Karaman EF, Aydoğmuş Z. Solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers of loratadine for topical application: physicochemical stability and drug penetration through rat skin. Trop J Pharm Res 2014; 13(5): 653-60.
Shah NV, Seth AK, Balaraman R, Aundhia CJ, Maheshwari RA, Parmar GR. Nanostructured lipid carriers for oral bioavailability enhancement of raloxifene: Design and in vivo study. J Adv Res 2016; 7(3): 423-34.
[] [PMID: 27222747]
Elmowafy M, Ibrahim HM, Ahmed MA, Shalaby K, Salama A, Hefesha H. Atorvastatin-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs): strategy to overcome oral delivery drawbacks. Drug Deliv 2017; 24(1): 932-41.
[] [PMID: 28617150]
Chen CC, Tsai TH, Huang ZR, Fang JY. Effects of lipophilic emulsifiers on the oral administration of lovastatin from nanostructured lipid carriers: physicochemical characterization and pharmacokinetics. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2010; 74(3): 474-82.
[] [PMID: 20060469]
Zhuang CY, Li N, Wang M, et al. Preparation and characterization of vinpocetine loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) for improved oral bioavailability. Int J Pharm 2010; 394(1-2): 179-85.
[] [PMID: 20471464]
Zhou X, Zhang X, Ye Y, et al. Nanostructured lipid carriers used for oral delivery of oridonin: an effect of ligand modification on absorption. Int J Pharm 2015; 479(2): 391-8.
[] [PMID: 25556104]
Tran TH, Ramasamy T, Truong DH, Choi HG, Yong CS, Kim JO. Preparation and characterization of fenofibrate-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers for oral bioavailability enhancement. AAPS PharmSciTech 2014; 15(6): 1509-15.
[] [PMID: 25035071]
Shangguan M, Lu Y, Qi J, et al. Binary lipids-based nanostructured lipid carriers for improved oral bioavailability of silymarin. J Biomater Appl 2014; 28(6): 887-96.
[] [PMID: 24008629]
Paranjpe M, Müller-Goymann CC. Nanoparticle-mediated pulmonary drug delivery: a review. Int J Mol Sci 2014; 15(4): 5852-73.
[] [PMID: 24717409]
Mansour HM, Rhee YS, Wu X. Nanomedicine in pulmonary delivery. Int J Nanomedicine 2009; 4: 299-319.
[] [PMID: 20054434]
Labiris NR, Dolovich MB. Pulmonary drug delivery. Part I: physiological factors affecting therapeutic effectiveness of aerosolized medications. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2003; 56(6): 588-99.
[] [PMID: 14616418]
Patlolla RR, Chougule M, Patel AR, Jackson T, Tata PN, Singh M. Formulation, characterization and pulmonary deposition of nebulized celecoxib encapsulated nanostructured lipid carriers. J Control Release 2010; 144(2): 233-41.
[] [PMID: 20153385]
Moreno-Sastre M, Pastor M, Salomon CJ, Esquisabel A, Pedraz JL. Pulmonary drug delivery: a review on nanocarriers for antibacterial chemotherapy. J Antimicrob Chemother 2015; 70(11): 2945-55.
[] [PMID: 26203182]
Taratula O, Kuzmov A, Shah M, Garbuzenko OB, Minko T. Nanostructured lipid carriers as multifunctional nanomedicine platform for pulmonary co-delivery of anticancer drugs and siRNA. J Control Release 2013; 171(3): 349-57.
[] [PMID: 23648833]
Kaur P, Garg T, Rath G, Murthy RSR, Goyal AK. Development, optimization and evaluation of surfactant-based pulmonary nanolipid carrier system of paclitaxel for the management of drug resistance lung cancer using Box-Behnken design. Drug Deliv 2016; 23(6): 1912-25.
[PMID: 25544602]
Patil-Gadhe A, Pokharkar V. Pulmonary targeting potential of rosuvastatin loaded nanostructured lipid carrier: Optimization by factorial design. Int J Pharm 2016; 501(1-2): 199-210.
[] [PMID: 26844785]
Moreno-Sastre M, Pastor M, Esquisabel A, et al. Pulmonary delivery of tobramycin-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers for Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections associated with cystic fibrosis. Int J Pharm 2016; 498(1-2): 263-73.
[] [PMID: 26705155]
Pastor M, Moreno-Sastre M, Esquisabel A, et al. Sodium colistimethate loaded lipid nanocarriers for the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections associated with cystic fibrosis. Int J Pharm 2014; 477(1-2): 485-94.
[] [PMID: 25445528]
Battaglia L, Serpe L, Foglietta F, et al. Application of lipid nanoparticles to ocular drug delivery. Expert Opin Drug Deliv 2016; 13(12): 1743-57.
[] [PMID: 27291069]
Okur NU, Gökçe EH. Lipid Nanoparticles for Ocular Drug Delivery Int J. Ophthalmic Res 2015; 1(3): 77-82.
Sharif Makhmal Zadeh B, Niro H, Rahim F, Esfahani G. Ocular Delivery System for Propranolol Hydrochloride Based on Nanostructured Lipid Carrier. Sci Pharm 2018; 86(2): 16.
[] [PMID: 29677103]
Balguri SP, Adelli GR, Majumdar S. Topical ophthalmic lipid nanoparticle formulations (SLN, NLC) of indomethacin for delivery to the posterior segment ocular tissues. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2016; 109: 224-35.
[] [PMID: 27793755]
Yu S, Tan G, Liu D, Yang X, Pan W. Nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC)-based novel hydrogels as potential carriers for nepafenac applied after cataract surgery for the treatment of inflammation: design, characterization and in vitro cellular inhibition and uptake studies. RSC Advances 2017; 7(27): 16668-77.
Fu T, Yi J, Lv S, Zhang B. Ocular amphotericin B delivery by chitosan-modified nanostructured lipid carriers for fungal keratitis-targeted therapy. J Liposome Res 2017; 27(3): 228-33.
[] [PMID: 27601177]
Üstündağ-Okur N, Gökçe EH, Bozbıyık DI, Eğrilmez S, Ertan G, Özer Ö. Novel nanostructured lipid carrier-based inserts for controlled ocular drug delivery: evaluation of corneal bioavailability and treatment efficacy in bacterial keratitis. Expert Opin Drug Deliv 2015; 12(11): 1791-807.
[] [PMID: 26159181]
Liu R, Sun L, Fang S, et al. Thermosensitive in situ nanogel as ophthalmic delivery system of curcumin: development, characterization, in vitro permeation and in vivo pharmacokinetic studies. Pharm Dev Technol 2016; 21(5): 576-82.
[PMID: 26024239]
Fortuna A, Alves G, Serralheiro A, Sousa J, Falcão A. Intranasal delivery of systemic-acting drugs: small-molecules and biomacromolecules. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2014; 88(1): 8-27.
[] [PMID: 24681294]
Madane RG, Mahajan HS. Curcumin-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) for nasal administration: design, characterization, and in vivo study. Drug Deliv 2016; 23(4): 1326-34.
[PMID: 25367836]
Alam MI, Baboota S, Ahuja A, Ali M, Ali J, Sahni JK. Intranasal administration of nanostructured lipid carriers containing CNS acting drug: pharmacodynamic studies and estimation in blood and brain. J Psychiatr Res 2012; 46(9): 1133-8.
[] [PMID: 22749490]
Singh SK, Hidau MK, Gautam S, et al. Glycol chitosan functionalized asenapine nanostructured lipid carriers for targeted brain delivery: Pharmacokinetic and teratogenic assessment International journal of biological macromolecules 2018.
Wavikar PR, Vavia PR. Rivastigmine-loaded in situ gelling nanostructured lipid carriers for nose to brain delivery. J Liposome Res 2015; 25(2): 141-9.
[] [PMID: 25203610]
Khan A, Imam SS, Aqil M, et al. Brain targeting of temozolomide via the intranasal route using lipid-based nanoparticles: brain pharmacokinetic and scintigraphic analyses. Mol Pharm 2016; 13(11): 3773-82.
[] [PMID: 27661966]
Mandpe L, Pokharkar V. Targeted brain delivery of iloperidone nanostructured lipid carriers following intranasal administration: in vivo pharmacokinetics and brain distribution studies. J Nanopharm Drug Deliv 2013; 1(2): 212-25.
Jain K, Sood S, Gowthamarajan K. Optimization of artemether-loaded NLC for intranasal delivery using central composite design. Drug Deliv 2015; 22(7): 940-54.
[] [PMID: 24512368]
Muntimadugu E, Dhommati R, Jain A, Challa VG, Shaheen M, Khan W. Intranasal delivery of nanoparticle encapsulated tarenflurbil: A potential brain targeting strategy for Alzheimer’s disease. Eur J Pharm Sci 2016; 92: 224-34.
[] [PMID: 27185298]
Abdelbary G, Fahmy RH. Diazepam-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles: design and characterization. AAPS PharmSciTech 2009; 10(1): 211-9.
[] [PMID: 19277870]
Gabal YM, Kamel AO, Sammour OA, Elshafeey AH. Effect of surface charge on the brain delivery of nanostructured lipid carriers in situ gels via the nasal route. Int J Pharm 2014; 473(1-2): 442-57.
[] [PMID: 25062866]
Wilson B, Lavanya Y, Priyadarshini SR, Ramasamy M, Jenita JL. Albumin nanoparticles for the delivery of gabapentin: preparation, characterization and pharmacodynamic studies. Int J Pharm 2014; 473(1-2): 73-9.
[] [PMID: 24999053]
Shinde RL, Bharkad GP, Devarajan PV. Intranasal microemulsion for targeted nose to brain delivery in neurocysticercosis: Role of docosahexaenoic acid. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2015; 96: 363-79.
[] [PMID: 26318978]
Shah B, Khunt D, Bhatt H, Misra M, Padh H. Application of quality by design approach for intranasal delivery of rivastigmine loaded solid lipid nanoparticles: Effect on formulation and characterization parameters. Eur J Pharm Sci 2015; 78: 54-66.
[] [PMID: 26143262]
Mittal D, Md S, Hasan Q, et al. Brain targeted nanoparticulate drug delivery system of rasagiline via intranasal route. Drug Deliv 2016; 23(1): 130-9.
[] [PMID: 24786489]
Papadimitriou S, Bikiaris D, Avgoustakis K, Karavas E, Georgarakis M. Chitosan nanoparticles loaded with dorzolamide and pramipexole. Carbohydr Polym 2008; 73(1): 44-54.
Kumar S, Randhawa JK. Preparation and characterization of Paliperidone loaded solid lipid nanoparticles. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2013; 102: 562-8.
[] [PMID: 23104026]
Silva AC, González-Mira E, García ML, et al. Preparation, characterization and biocompatibility studies on risperidone-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN): high pressure homogenization versus ultrasound. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2011; 86(1): 158-65.
[] [PMID: 21530187]

Rights & Permissions Print Export Cite as
© 2022 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy