Generic placeholder image

Coronaviruses

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 2666-7967
ISSN (Online): 2666-7975

Review Article

Symptoms, Transmission, Prevention and Treatment of Pandemic Corona Virus: A Review

Author(s): Tinsae Kebede, Dharmendra Kumar* and Pramod Kumar Sharma

Volume 2 , Issue 2 , 2021

Published on: 13 July, 2020

Page: [151 - 158] Pages: 8

DOI: 10.2174/2666796701999200713191436

Abstract

Coronaviruses belong to the largest group of viruses that elicit acute respiratory, enteric and systemic infections in an extensive range of hosts. A few coronaviruses from animals can progress into a new human coronavirus that can spread from person to person. On February 12, 2020, WHO officially termed the disease as Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and declared it a pandemic on March 11, 2020. COVID-19 is a newly emerging viral disease that has an effect on the lower respiratory tract and shows as pneumonia. Despite laborious efforts for worldwide lockdown and quarantine, the occurrence of COVID-19 continues to increase. Proper and well-designed strategies are needed to reduce social and economic consequences arisen due to this pandemic disease. Presently, there is no effective specific vaccine and anti-viral drug supported by great-level confirmation, but dexamethasone is approved in the UK for treatment of critically ill COVID-19 patients (patients on ventilators and patients requiring only oxygen) on June 16, 2020. Further research is required to clarify the factors that affect virus pathogenesis and lethal infections.

Keywords: COVID-19, Coronaviruses, diagnostics, vaccines, pandemic, infection.

[1]
Kahn JS, McIntosh K. History and recent advances in coronavirus discovery. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2005; 24(11)(Suppl.): S223-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.inf.0000188166.17324.60] [PMID: 16378050]
[2]
Fehr AR, Perlman S. Coronaviruses: an overview of their replication and pathogenesis. Methods Mol Biol 2015; 1282: 1-23.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-2438-7_1] [PMID: 25720466]
[3]
Drosten C, Günther S, Preiser W, et al. Identification of a novel coronavirus in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome. N Engl J Med 2003; 348(20): 1967-76.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa030747] [PMID: 12690091]
[4]
Peiris JS, Lai ST, Poon LL, et al. SARS study group. Coronavirus as a possible cause of severe acute respiratory syndrome. Lancet 2003; 361(9366): 1319-25.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(03)13077-2] [PMID: 12711465]
[5]
Lau SK, Woo PC, Li KS, et al. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-like virus in Chinese horseshoe bats. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2005; 102(39): 14040-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0506735102] [PMID: 16169905]
[6]
Li W, Shi Z, Yu M, et al. Bats are natural reservoirs of SARS-like coronaviruses. Science 2005; 310(5748): 676-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1118391] [PMID: 16195424]
[7]
Cui J, Li F, Shi ZL. Origin and evolution of pathogenic coronaviruses. Nat Rev Microbiol 2019; 17(3): 181-92.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41579-018-0118-9] [PMID: 30531947]
[8]
Zaki AM, van Boheemen S, Bestebroer TM, Osterhaus AD, Fouchier RA. Isolation of a novel coronavirus from a man with pneumonia in Saudi Arabia. N Engl J Med 2012; 367(19): 1814-20.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1211721] [PMID: 23075143]
[9]
Malik YS, Sircar S, Bhat S, et al. Emerging novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)-current scenario, evolutionary perspective based on genome analysis and recent developments. Vet Q 2020; 40(1): 68-76.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01652176.2020.1727993] [PMID: 32036774]
[10]
Sahin AR, Erdogan A. Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak: a review of the current literature. EJMO 2020; 4(1): 1-7.
[11]
Ksiazek TG, Erdman D, Goldsmith CS, et al. SARS working group. A novel coronavirus associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome. N Engl J Med 2003; 348(20): 1953-66.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa030781] [PMID: 12690092]
[12]
Alagaili AN, Briese T, Mishra N, et al. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection in dromedary camels in Saudi Arabia. MBio 2014; 5(2): e00884-14.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01002-14] [PMID: 24570370]
[13]
Poutanen SM, Low DE, Henry B, et al. National microbiology laboratory, Canada; Canadian severe acute respiratory syndrome study team. Identification of severe acute respiratory syndrome in Canada. N Engl J Med 2003; 348(20): 1995-2005.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa030634] [PMID: 12671061]
[14]
Holmes KV. SARS coronavirus: a new challenge for prevention and therapy. J Clin Invest 2003; 111(11): 1605-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI18819] [PMID: 12782660]
[15]
Herrewegh AA, Mähler M, Hedrich HJ, et al. Persistence and evolution of feline coronavirus in a closed cat-breeding colony. Virology 1997; 234(2): 349-63.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/viro.1997.8663] [PMID: 9268167]
[16]
Zhong NS, Zeng GQ. Our strategies for fighting severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2003; 168(1): 7-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/rccm.200305-707OE] [PMID: 12773318]
[17]
Heusipp G, Harms U, Siddell SG, Ziebuhr J. Identification of an ATPase activity associated with a 71-kilodalton polypeptide encoded in gene 1 of the human coronavirus 229E. J Virol 1997; 71(7): 5631-4.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.71.7.5631-5634.1997] [PMID: 9188639]
[18]
World Health Organization. Novel Coronavirus (2019 n-CoV) situation reports 2020. Available from: https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/situation-reports/b
[19]
World Health Organization. Emergencies preparedness, response Available from: http://www.who.int/csr/don/12-january-2020-novel-coronavirus-china/en/
[20]
Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet 2020; 395(10223): 497-506.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30183-5] [PMID: 31986264]
[21]
Majumder MS, Mandl KD. Early transmissibility assessment of a novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Preprints 2020; 2020: 1.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3524675]
[22]
Hui DSI, Azhar E, Madani TA, et al. The continuing 2019-nCoV epidemic threat of novel coronaviruses to global health - The latest 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak in Wuhan, China. Int J Infect Dis 2020; 91: 264-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.01.009] [PMID: 31953166]
[23]
Chen IY, Moriyama M, Chang MF, Ichinohe T. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus Viroporin 3a activates the NLRP3 inflammasome. Front Microbiol 2019; 10(2): 50.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2019.00050] [PMID: 30761102]
[24]
Wu Z, McGoogan JM. Characteristics of and important lessons from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in China: summary of a report of 72 314 cases from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. JAMA 2020; 323(13): 1239-42.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.2648] [PMID: 32091533]
[25]
Pillaiyar T, Meenakshisundaram S, Manickam M. Recent discovery and development of inhibitors targeting coronaviruses. Drug Discov Today 2020; 25(4): 668-88.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drudis.2020.01.015] [PMID: 32006468]
[26]
World Health Organization. Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) advice for the public Available from: https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019a
[27]
Colson P, Rolain JM, Lagier JC, Brouqui P, Raoult D. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine as available weapons to fight COVID-19. Int J Antimicrob Agents 2020; 55(4)105932
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105932] [PMID: 32145363]
[28]
Colson P, Rolain JM, Raoult D. Chloroquine for the 2019 novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Int J Antimicrob Agents 2020; 55(3)105923
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105923] [PMID: 32070753]
[29]
Zhu N, Zhang D, Wang W, et al. China Novel Coronavirus investigating and research team. A novel coronavirus from patients with pneumonia in China. N Engl J Med 2020; 382(8): 727-33.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2001017] [PMID: 31978945]
[30]
Xu X, Chen P, Wang J, et al. Evolution of the novel coronavirus from the ongoing Wuhan outbreak and modeling of its spike protein for risk of human transmission. Sci China Life Sci 2020; 63(3): 457-60.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11427-020-1637-5] [PMID: 32009228]
[31]
Nishiura H, Jung SM, Linton NM, et al. The extent of transmission of novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. J Clin Med 2020; 9(2): 330.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9020330]
[32]
Kirchdoerfer RN, Cottrell CA, Wang N, et al. Pre-fusion structure of a human coronavirus spike protein. Nature 2016; 531(7592): 118-21.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature17200] [PMID: 26935699]
[33]
Gorbalenya AE, Baker SC, Baric RS, et al. Severe acute respiratory syndrome related coronaviruse: the species and its viruses – a statement of the Coronavirus study group. bioRxiv 2020; 2020: 1.
[http://dx.doi.org/doi.org/10.1101/2020.02.07.937862]
[34]
Lam TTY, Shum MHH, Zhu HC, et al. Identification of 2019-nCoV related coronaviruses in Malayan pangolins in Southern China. bioRxiv 2020; 2020: 1.
[http://dx.doi.org/doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2169-0]
[35]
Zhang L, Shen FM, Chen F, Lin Z. Origin and evolution of the 2019 novel coronavirus. Clin Infect Dis 2020; 71(15): 882-3.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa112]
[36]
Yang Y, Lu Q, Liu M, et al. Epidemiological and clinical features of the 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak in China. MedRxiv preprint 2020; 2020: 1.
[37]
Luk HKH, Li X, Fung J, Lau SKP, Woo PCY. Molecular epidemiology, evolution and phylogeny of SARS coronavirus. Infect Genet Evol 2019; 71: 21-30.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2019.03.001] [PMID: 30844511]
[38]
Wuhan health committee (WHC), Notice on the issuance of unexplained viral pneumonia.. Available from: http://www.wuhan.gov.cn/front/web/show
[39]
Guan WJ, Ni ZY, Hu Y, et al. Clinical characteristics of 2019 novel coronavirus infection in China. MedRxiv 2020; 2020: 1.
[40]
Zhou P, Yang XL, Wang XG, et al. A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin. Nature 2020; 579(7798): 270-3.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2012-7] [PMID: 32015507]
[41]
Corman VM, Landt O, Kaiser M, et al. Detection of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) by real-time RT-PCR. Euro Surveill 2020; 25(3): 245.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.3.2000045] [PMID: 31992387]
[42]
Chu DKW, Pan Y, Cheng SMS, et al. Molecular diagnosis of a novel coronavirus (2019-ncov) causing an outbreak of pneumonia. Clin Chem 2020; 66(4): 549-55.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/clinchem/hvaa029] [PMID: 32031583]
[43]
Chen H, Guo J, Wang C, et al. Clinical characteristics and intrauterine vertical transmission potential of COVID-19 infection in nine pregnant women: a retrospective review of medical records. Lancet 2020; 395(10226): 809-15.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30360-3] [PMID: 32151335]
[44]
Yin Y, Wunderink RG. MERS, SARS and other coronaviruses as causes of pneumonia. Respirology 2018; 23(2): 130-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/resp.13196] [PMID: 29052924]
[45]
Gralinski LE, Menachery VD. Return of the Coronavirus: 2019-nCoV. Viruses 2020; 12(2): 135.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12020135] [PMID: 31991541]
[46]
Holshue ML, DeBolt C, Lindquist S, et al. Washington State 2019-nCoV case investigation team. First case of 2019 Novel Coronavirus in the United States. N Engl J Med 2020; 382(10): 929-36.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2001191] [PMID: 32004427]
[47]
[48]
Riou J, Althaus CL. Pattern of early human-to-human transmission of Wuhan 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), December 2019 to January 2020. Euro Surveill 2020; 25(4)2000058
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.4.2000058] [PMID: 32019669]
[49]
Rothe C, Schunk M, Sothmann P, et al. Transmission of 2019-nCoV infection from an asymptomatic contact in Germany. N Engl J Med 2020; 382(10): 970-1.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMc2001468] [PMID: 32003551]
[50]
Pang J, Wang MX, Ang IYH, et al. Potential rapid diagnostics, vaccine and therapeutics for 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV): a systematic review. J Clin Med 2020; 9(3): 623.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9030623] [PMID: 32110875]
[51]
Cohen J. New coronavirus threat galvanizes scientists. Science 2020; 367(6477): 492-3.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.367.6477.492] [PMID: 32001631]
[52]
Mahase E. China coronavirus: what do we know so far? BMJ 2020; 368: m308.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m308] [PMID: 31980434]
[53]
Lu H. Drug treatment options for the 2019-new coronavirus (2019-nCoV). Biosci Trends 2019; 14(1): 69-71.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.5582/bst.2020.01020.]
[54]
Cyranoski D. This scientist hopes to test coronavirus drugs on animals in locked-down Wuhan. Nature 2020; 577(7792): 607.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/d41586-020-00190-6] [PMID: 31992886]
[55]
Cheng VCC, Wong SC, To KKW, Ho PL, Yuen KY. Preparedness and proactive infection control measures against the emerging novel coronavirus in China. J Hosp Infect 2020; 104(3): 254-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhin.2020.01.010] [PMID: 31962139]
[56]
Graham RL, Donaldson EF, Baric RS. A decade after SARS: strategies for controlling emerging coronaviruses. Nat Rev Microbiol 2013; 11(12): 836-48.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrmicro3143] [PMID: 24217413]
[57]
Jiang S, He Y, Liu S. SARS vaccine development. Emerg Infect Dis 2005; 11(7): 1016-20.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/1107.050219] [PMID: 16022774]
[58]
ClinicalTrials.gov. Efficacy and safety of hydroxychloroquine for treatment of pneumonia caused by 2019. Available from: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04261517
[59]
ClinicalTrials.gov. Glucocorticoid therapy for novel coronavirus critically ill patients with severe acute respiratory failure (steroidssari) Available from: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04244591
[60]
Seven days in medicine: 8-14. BMJ 2020; 2020: 368.
[http://dx.doi.org/doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m132]
[61]
Gautret P, Lagier JC, Parola P, et al. Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin as a treatment of COVID-19: results of an open-label non-randomized clinical trial. Int J Antimicrob Agents 2020; 2020105949
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105949] [PMID: 32205204]
[62]
Du L, He Y, Zhou Y, Liu S, Zheng B-J, Jiang S. The spike protein of SARS-CoV--a target for vaccine and therapeutic development. Nat Rev Microbiol 2009; 7(3): 226-36.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrmicro2090] [PMID: 19198616]
[63]
Sheahan TP, Sims AC, Graham RL, et al. Broad-spectrum antiviral GS-5734 inhibits both epidemic and zoonotic coronaviruses. Sci Transl Med 2017; 9(396): 1-11.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.aal3653] [PMID: 28659436]
[64]
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome--worldwide. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2003; 52(12): 241-6.
[PMID: 12680518]
[65]
Kumar D, Malviya R, Sharma PK. Corona virus: a review of COVID-19. EJMO 2020; 4(1): 8-25.
[66]
Thorlund K, Dron L, et al. A real time dashboard of clinical trials for COVID-19. Lancet Digit Health 2020; 2(6): 286-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2589-7500(20)30086-8]
[67]
Xu J, Shi PY, Li H, et al. Broad spectrum antviral agent niclosamide and its therapeutc potental. ACS Infect Dis 2020; 6(5): 909-15.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsinfecdis.0c00052]
[68]
Deng L, Li C, Zeng Q, et al. Arbidol combined with LPV/r versus LPV/r alone against Corona Virus disease 2019: a retrospective cohort study. J Infect 2020; 81(1): e1-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2020.03.002] [PMID: 32171872]
[69]
Liu F, Xu A, Zhang Y, et al. Patients of COVID-19 may benefit from sustained Lopinavir-combined regimen and the increase of Eosinophil may predict the outcome of COVID-19 progression. Int J Infect Dis 2020; 95: 183-91.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.03.013] [PMID: 32173576]
[70]
World Health Organization. Director-General opening remarks at the media briefing on COVID-19 Available from: https://www.who.int/director-general/speeches/detail/who-director-general-s-opening-remarks-at-the-media-briefing-on-covid-19---11-march-2020

© 2022 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy