Generic placeholder image

Current Drug Targets


ISSN (Print): 1389-4501
ISSN (Online): 1873-5592

General Review Article

Chitosan Nanoparticles as a Novel Drug Delivery System: A Review Article

Author(s): Sina M. Matalqah*, Khalid Aiedeh, Nizar M. Mhaidat, Karem H. Alzoubi, Yasser Bustanji and Islam Hamad

Volume 21 , Issue 15 , 2020

Page: [1613 - 1624] Pages: 12

DOI: 10.2174/1389450121666200711172536

Price: $65


Natural polymers, particularly polysaccharide, have been used as drug delivery systems for a variety of therapeutic agents such as peptides, proteins, vaccines, DNA, and drugs for parenteral and non-parenteral administration. Chitosan, the second most abundant naturally occurring polysaccharide after cellulose, is a biocompatible and biodegradable mucoadhesive polymer that is extensively used in the preparation of nanoparticles (NPs). Chitosan NPs loaded with drugs were found to be stable, permeable and bioactive. In this review, the importance of chitosan and its derivatives in drug delivery is illustrated, different methods of preparation of chitosan and chitosan derivatives NPs and their physio- chemical properties are addressed. Moreover, the desirable characteristics of successful NPs based drug delivery systems, as well as the pharmaceutical applications of these NPs are also clearly explored.

Keywords: Chitosan, drug delivery, ionic gelation, emulsification, desolvation, nanoparticles.

Graphical Abstract
Agnihotri J, Saraf S, Singh S, Bigoniya P. Development and evaluation of anti-malarial bio-conjugates: artesunate-loaded nanoerythrosomes. Drug Deliv Transl Res 2015; 5(5): 489-97.
[] [PMID: 26223381]
Agnihotri SA, Mallikarjuna NN, Aminabhavi TM. Recent advances on chitosan-based micro- and nanoparticles in drug delivery. J Control Release 2004; 100(1): 5-28.
[] [PMID: 15491807]
Ahmed TA, Aljaeid BM. Preparation, characterization, and potential application of chitosan, chitosan derivatives, and chitosan metal nanoparticles in pharmaceutical drug delivery. Drug Des Devel Ther 2016; 10: 483-507.
[] [PMID: 26869768]
Aiedeh K, Taha MO. Synthesis of chitosan succinate and chitosan phthalate and their evaluation as suggested matrices in orally administered, colon-specific drug delivery systems. Arch Pharm (Weinheim) 1999; 332(3): 103-7.
[<103:AID-ARDP103>3.0.CO;2-U] [PMID: 10228455]
Aiping Z, Tian C, Lanhua Y, Hao W, Ping L. Synthesis and characterization of N-succinyl-chitosan and its self-assembly of nanospheres. Carbohydr Polym 2006; 66: 274-9.
Al-Kassas R, Wen J, Cheng AE, Kim AM, Liu SSM, Yu J. Transdermal delivery of propranolol hydrochloride through chitosan nanoparticles dispersed in mucoadhesive gel. Carbohydr Polym 2016; 153: 176-86.
[] [PMID: 27561485]
Anitha A, Deepagan V, Rani VD, Menon D, Nair S, Jayakumar R. Preparation, characterization, in vitro drug release and biological studies of curcumin loaded dextran sulphate–chitosan nanoparticles. Carbohydr Polym 2011; 84: 1158-64.
Arif M, Dong Q-J, Raja M, Zeenat S, Chi Z, Liu C-G. Development of novel pH-sensitive thiolated chitosan/PMLA nanoparticles for amoxicillin delivery to treat Helicobacter pylori. Mater Sci Eng C 2018; 83: 17-24.
[PMID: 29208276]
Arpagaus C. PLA/PLGA nanoparticles prepared by nano spray drying. J Pharm Investig 2019; 49: 405-26.
Avadi MR, Sadeghi AMM, Tahzibi A, et al. Diethylmethyl chitosan as an antimicrobial agent: Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial effects. Eur Polym J 2004; 40: 1355-61.
Baltzley S, Mohammad A, Malkawi AH, Al-Ghananeem AM. Intranasal drug delivery of olanzapine-loaded chitosan nanoparticles. AAPS PharmSciTech 2014; 15(6): 1598-602.
[] [PMID: 25142821]
Banerjee T, Mitra S, Kumar Singh A, Kumar Sharma R, Maitra A. Preparation, characterization and biodistribution of ultrafine chitosan nanoparticles. Int J Pharm 2002; 243(1-2): 93-105.
[] [PMID: 12176298]
Bayat A, Sadeghi A, Avadi M, et al. Synthesis of N, N-dimethyl N-ethyl chitosan as a carrier for oral delivery of peptide drugs. Journal of bioactive and compatible polymers -. J Bioact Compat Polym 2006; 21: 433-44.
Bernkop-Schnürch A. Thiomers: a new generation of mucoadhesive polymers. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2005; 57(11): 1569-82.
[] [PMID: 16176846]
Bhattarai SR, Kc RB, Aryal S, Khil MS, Kim HY. N-Acylated chitosan stabilized iron oxide nanoparticles as a novel nano-matrix and ceramic modification. Carbohydr Polym 2007; 69: 467-77.
Bilensoy E, Sarisozen C, Esendağli G, et al. Intravesical cationic nanoparticles of chitosan and polycaprolactone for the delivery of Mitomycin C to bladder tumors. Int J Pharm 2009; 371(1-2): 170-6.
[] [PMID: 19135514]
Biswas AK, Islam MR, Choudhury ZS, Mostafa A, Kadir MF. Nanotechnology based approaches in cancer therapeutics. Adv Nat Sci-NanoSci 2014; 5043001
Borges O, Cordeiro-da-Silva A, Tavares J, et al. Immune response by nasal delivery of hepatitis B surface antigen and codelivery of a CpG ODN in alginate coated chitosan nanoparticles. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2008; 69(2): 405-16.
[] [PMID: 18364251]
Bravo-Osuna I, Schmitz T, Bernkop-Schnürch A, Vauthier C, Ponchel G. Elaboration and characterization of thiolated chitosan-coated acrylic nanoparticles. Int J Pharm 2006; 316(1-2): 170-5.
[] [PMID: 16580797]
Calderón L, Harris R, Cordoba-Diaz M, et al. Nano and microparticulate chitosan-based systems for antiviral topical delivery. Eur J Pharm Sci 2013; 48(1-2): 216-22.
[] [PMID: 23159663]
Caro-León FJ, Argüelles-Monal W, Carvajal-Millán E, et al. Production and characterization of supercritical CO2 dried chitosan nanoparticles as novel carrier device. Carbohydr Polym 2018; 198: 556-62.
[] [PMID: 30093034]
Casadidio C, Peregrina DV, Gigliobianco MR, Deng S, Censi R, Di Martino P. Chitin and chitosans: Characteristics, eco-friendly processes, and applications in cosmetic science. Mar Drugs 2019; 17(6): 369.
[] [PMID: 31234361]
Chakraborty SP, Sahu SK, Pramanik P, Roy S. In vitro antimicrobial activity of nanoconjugated vancomycin against drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Int J Pharm 2012; 436(1-2): 659-76.
[] [PMID: 22841851]
Chaubey P, Mishra B. Mannose-conjugated chitosan nanoparticles loaded with rifampicin for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis. Carbohydr Polym 2014; 101: 1101-8.
[] [PMID: 24299880]
Chen S-C, Wu Y-C, Mi F-L, Lin Y-H, Yu L-C, Sung H-W. A novel pH-sensitive hydrogel composed of N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan and alginate cross-linked by genipin for protein drug delivery. J Control Release 2004; 96(2): 285-300.
[] [PMID: 15081219]
Cheng Y-H, Yang S-H, Lin F-H. Thermosensitive chitosan-gelatin-glycerol phosphate hydrogel as a controlled release system of ferulic acid for nucleus pulposus regeneration. Biomaterials 2011; 32(29): 6953-61.
[] [PMID: 21774981]
Chi NT, Triet NM, Chien DM. Preparation of drug nanoparticles by emulsion evaporation method Journal of Physics: conference series. IOP Publishing 2009; p. 012047.
Clogston JD, Patri AK. Zeta potential measurement. Methods Mol Biol 2011; 697: 63-70.
[] [PMID: 21116954]
Cunha T, Teixeira B, Santos B, Almeida M, Dias G, Neves J. Biological and pharmacological activity of chitosan and derivatives. In: 2012; pp. 75-92.
Daniela P, Vasile C. Nanogels of Natural Polymers. 2018; pp. 71-110.
Dass CR, Choong PF. The use of chitosan formulations in cancer therapy. J Microencapsul 2008; 25(4): 275-9.
[] [PMID: 18465306]
Dastan T, Turan K. In vitro characterization and delivery of chitosan-DNA microparticles into mammalian cells. J Pharm Pharm Sci 2004; 7(2): 205-14.
[PMID: 15367377]
Dellera E, Bonferoni MC, Sandri G, et al. Development of chitosan oleate ionic micelles loaded with silver sulfadiazine to be associated with platelet lysate for application in wound healing. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2014; 88(3): 643-50.
[] [PMID: 25128852]
Demirbolat G, Degim İ. Preparation of chitosan nanoparticles by nano spray drying technology 2013; 38: 127-33.
Dizaj SM, Vazifehasl Zh, Salatin S, Adibkia Kh, Javadzadeh Y. Nanosizing of drugs: Effect on dissolution rate. Res Pharm Sci 2015; 10(2): 95-108.
[PMID: 26487886]
Dmour I, Taha M. Natural and semisynthetic polymers in pharmaceutical nanotechnology Ch 2 In: Organic Materials as Smart Nanocarriers for Drug Delivery. 2018; pp. 35-100.
Elieh-Ali-Komi D, Hamblin MR. Chitin and chitosan: production and application of versatile biomedical nanomaterials. Int J Adv Res (Indore) 2016; 4(3): 411-27.
[PMID: 27819009]
Gavini E, Rassu G, Sanna V, Cossu M, Giunchedi P. Mucoadhesive microspheres for nasal administration of an antiemetic drug, metoclopramide: in-vitro/ex-vivo studies. J Pharm Pharmacol 2005; 57(3): 287-94.
[] [PMID: 15807983]
Ghasemi Z, Dinarvand R, Mottaghitalab F, Esfandyari-Manesh M, Sayari E, Atyabi F. Aptamer decorated hyaluronan/chitosan nanoparticles for targeted delivery of 5-fluorouracil to MUC1 overexpressing adenocarcinomas. Carbohydr Polym 2015; 121: 190-8.
[] [PMID: 25659689]
Gombotz WR, Healy MS, Brown LR. Very low temperature casting of controlled release microspheres US Patent 5,019,4001991.
Grenha A, Gomes ME, Rodrigues M, et al. Development of new chitosan/carrageenan nanoparticles for drug delivery applications. J Biomed Mater Res A 2010; 92(4): 1265-72.
[PMID: 19322874]
Gulbake A, Jain SK. Chitosan: a potential polymer for colon-specific drug delivery system. Expert Opin Drug Deliv 2012; 9(6): 713-29.
[] [PMID: 22530707]
Hafner A, Lovrić J, Pepić I, Filipović-Grčić J. Lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles for transdermal delivery of melatonin. J Microencapsul 2011; 28(8): 807-15.
[] [PMID: 22117177]
He C, Hu Y, Yin L, Tang C, Yin C. Effects of particle size and surface charge on cellular uptake and biodistribution of polymeric nanoparticles. Biomaterials 2010; 31(13): 3657-66.
[] [PMID: 20138662]
Hoa L, Chi N, Triet N, Nhân L, Chien D. Preparation of drug nanoparticles by emulsion evaporation method. J Phys Conf Ser 2009; 187: 15-21.
Huanbutta K, Sriamornsak P, Luangtana-Anan M, et al. Application of multiple stepwise spinning disk processing for the synthesis of poly(methyl acrylates) coated chitosan-diclofenac sodium nanoparticles for colonic drug delivery. European journal of pharmaceutical sciences official journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences 50 2013.
Hwang H-Y, Kim I-S, Kwon IC, Kim Y-H. Tumor targetability and antitumor effect of docetaxel-loaded hydrophobically modified glycol chitosan nanoparticles. J Control Release 2008; 128(1): 23-31.
[] [PMID: 18374444]
Imai T, Kawasaki C, Nishiyama T, Otagiri M. Comparison of the pharmaceutical properties of sustained-release gel beads prepared by alginate having different molecular size with commercial sustained-release tablet. Pharmazie 2000; 55(3): 218-22.
[PMID: 10756544]
Jacobs C, Kayser O, Müller RH. Nanosuspensions as a new approach for the formulation for the poorly soluble drug tarazepide. Int J Pharm 2000; 196(2): 161-4.
[] [PMID: 10699709]
Jain D, Banerjee R. Comparison of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride-loaded protein, lipid, and chitosan nanoparticles for drug delivery. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2008; 86(1): 105-12.
[] [PMID: 18098198]
Jamil B, Habib H, Abbasi S, et al. Cefazolin loaded chitosan nanoparticles to cure multi drug resistant Gram-negative pathogens. Carbohydr Polym 2016; 136: 682-91.
[PMID: 26572401]
Janes K, Fresneau M, Marazuela A, Fabra A, Alonso M. Chitosan nanoparticles as delivery systems for doxorubicin. Journal of controlled release : Official journal of the controlled release society 2001a; 73: 255-67.
Janes KA, Fresneau MP, Marazuela A, Fabra A, Alonso MJ. Chitosan nanoparticles as delivery systems for doxorubicin. J Control Release 2001b; 73(2-3): 255-67.
[] [PMID: 11516503]
Jayakumar R, Prabaharan M, Reis RL, Mano JF. Graft copolymerized chitosan - Present status and applications. Carbohydr Polym 2005; 62: 142-58.
Jayakumar R, Prabaharan M, Nair SV, Tokura S, Tamura H, Selvamurugan N. Novel carboxymethyl derivatives of chitin and chitosan materials and their biomedical applications. Prog Mater Sci 2010; 55: 675-709.
Jin M, Hu Q. Characterization and application in bioadhesive drug delivery system of chitosan. Centr South Pharm 2008; 6: 324-7.
Jonassen H, Kjøniksen A-L, Hiorth M. Stability of chitosan nanoparticles cross-linked with tripolyphosphate. Biomacromolecules 2012; 13(11): 3747-56.
[] [PMID: 23046433]
Jurišić Dukovski B, Mrak L, Winnicka K, et al. Spray-dried nanoparticle-loaded pectin microspheres for dexamethasone nasal delivery. Dry Technol 2019; 37: 1-11.
Kankala RK, Zhang YS, Wang S-B, Lee C-H, Chen A-Z. Supercritical fluid technology: An emphasis on drug delivery and related biomedical applications. Adv Healthc Mater 2017; 6(16)1700433
[] [PMID: 28752598]
Kato Y, Onishi H, Machida Y. Depolymerization of N-succinyl-chitosan by hydrochloric acid. Carbohydr Res 2002; 337(6): 561-4.
[] [PMID: 11890894]
Kazemzadeh-Narbat M, Reid M, Brooks MS-L, Ghanem A. Chitosan nanoparticles as adenosine carriers. J Microencapsul 2015; 32(5): 460-6.
[] [PMID: 26052724]
Keawchaoon L, Yoksan R. Preparation, characterization and in vitro release study of carvacrol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2011; 84(1): 163-71.
[] [PMID: 21296562]
Khatri K, Goyal AK, Gupta PN, Mishra N, Vyas SP. Plasmid DNA loaded chitosan nanoparticles for nasal mucosal immunization against hepatitis B. Int J Pharm 2008; 354(1-2): 235-41.
[] [PMID: 18182259]
Kim J-H, Kim Y-S, Park K, et al. Antitumor efficacy of cisplatin-loaded glycol chitosan nanoparticles in tumor-bearing mice. J Control Release 2008a; 127(1): 41-9.
[] [PMID: 18234388]
Kim JH, Kim YS, Park K, et al. Antitumor efficacy of cisplatin-loaded glycol chitosan nanoparticles in tumor-bearing mice. J Control Release 2008b; 127(1): 41-9.
[] [PMID: 18234388]
Kim SA, Rhee MS. Highly enhanced bactericidal effects of medium chain fatty acids (caprylic, capric, and lauric acid) combined with edible plant essential oils (carvacrol, eugenol, β-resorcylic acid, trans-cinnamaldehyde, thymol, and vanillin) against Escherichia coli O157: H7. Food Control 2016; 60: 447-54.
Kini AG, Dixit M, Kulkarni P. Enhancement of solubility and dissolution rate of poorly water soluble drug by spray drying using different grade of chitosan. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2011; 3: 231-5.
Kotsaeng N, Karnchanajindanun J, Baimark Y. Chitosan microparticles prepared by the simple emulsification-diffusion method. Particul Sci Technol 2010; 28: 369-78.
Kraan S. Algal Polysaccharides. Novel Applications and Outlook 2012; pp. 489-532.
krishna sailaja A, Vineela C. Preparation and characterization of mefenamic acid loaded bovine serum albumin nanoparticles by desolvation technique using acetone as desolvating agent. Der Pharmacia Lettre 2014; 6(20): 226-7.
Ladner DA, Steele M, Weir A, Hristovski K, Westerhoff P. Functionalized nanoparticle interactions with polymeric membranes. J Hazard Mater 2012; 211-212: 288-95.
[] [PMID: 22177020]
Le T, Lacroix M, Ispas-Szabo P, Mateescu MA. N-acylated chitosan: Hydrophobic matrices for controlled drug release. Journal of controlled release official journal of the Controlled Release Society 2003; 93: 1-13.
Learoyd TP, Burrows JL, French E, Seville PC. Chitosan-based spray-dried respirable powders for sustained delivery of terbutaline sulfate. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2008; 68(2): 224-34.
[] [PMID: 17560772]
Lee D, Zhang W, Shirley SA, et al. Thiolated chitosan/DNA nanocomplexes exhibit enhanced and sustained gene delivery. Pharm Res 2007; 24(1): 157-67.
[] [PMID: 17103334]
Li J, Cai C, Li J, et al. Chitosan-Based Nanomaterials for Drug Delivery. Molecules 2018; 23(10): 2661.
[] [PMID: 30332830]
Li X, Kong X, Shi S, et al. Preparation of alginate coated chitosan microparticles for vaccine delivery. BMC Biotechnol 2008; 8: 89.
[] [PMID: 19019229]
Liu J, Qiu Z, Wang S, Zhou L, Zhang S. A modified double-emulsion method for the preparation of daunorubicin-loaded polymeric nanoparticle with enhanced in vitro anti-tumor activity. Biomed Mater 2010; 5(6)065002
[] [PMID: 20924138]
Mao S, Neu M, Germershaus O, et al. Influence of polyethylene glycol chain length on the physicochemical and biological properties of poly(ethylene imine)-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) block copolymer/SiRNA polyplexes. Bioconjug Chem 2006; 17(5): 1209-18.
[] [PMID: 16984130]
Mitra A, Dey B. Chitosan microspheres in novel drug delivery systems. Indian J Pharm Sci 2011; 73(4): 355-66.
[PMID: 22707817]
Mitra S, Gaur U, Ghosh PC, Maitra AN. Tumour targeted delivery of encapsulated dextran-doxorubicin conjugate using chitosan nanoparticles as carrier. J Control Release 2001; 74(1-3): 317-23.
[] [PMID: 11489513]
Mooranian A, Negrulj R, Al-Salami H. The effects of ionic gelation- vibrational jet flow technique in fabrication of microcapsules incorporating β-cell: applications in type-1 diabetes. Curr Diabetes Rev 2015; 12.
Mourdikoudis S, Pallares RM, Thanh NTK. Characterization techniques for nanoparticles: comparison and complementarity upon studying nanoparticle properties. Nanoscale 2018; 10(27): 12871-934.
[] [PMID: 29926865]
Mourya VK, Inamdar NN. Trimethyl chitosan and its applications in drug delivery. J Mater Sci Mater Med 2009; 20(5): 1057-79.
[] [PMID: 19112609]
Mundargi R, Srirangarajan S, Agnihotri S, et al. Development and Evaluation of novel biodegradable microspheres based on poly(D,L-Lactide-co-Glycolide) and poly(??-Caprolactone) for controlled delivery of doxycycline in the treatment of human periodontal pocket: in vitro and in vivo studies. Journal of controlled release official journal of the Controlled Release Society 2007; 119: 59-68.
Muzzarelli R. Chitosan composites with inorganics, morphogenetic proteins and stem cells, for bone regeneration. Carbohydr Polym 2011; 83: 1433-45.
Muzzarelli RA, Ramos V, Stanic V, et al. Osteogenesis promoted by calcium phosphate N, N-dicarboxymethyl chitosan. Carbohydr Polym 1998; 36: 267-76.
Nagarwal R, Kant S, Singh P, Maiti P, Pandit J. Polymeric nanoparticulate system: A potential approach for ocular drug delivery. Journal of controlled release: official journal of the Controlled Release Society 2009; 136: 2-13.
Narayani R. Oral delivery of insulin-making needles needless. Trends Biomater Artif Organs 2001; 15: 12-6.
Naskar S, Sharma S, Kuotsu K. Chitosan-based nanoparticles: An overview of biomedical applications and its preparation. J Drug Deliv Sci Technol 2018a; 49: 66-81.
Naskar S, Koutsu K, Sharma S. Chitosan-based nanoparticles as drug delivery systems: a review on two decades of research. J Drug Target 2019b; 27(4): 379-93.
[] [PMID: 30103626]
Nasra M. Preparation of biocompatible magnetic microspheres with chitosan. J Biomater Nanobiotechnol 2011; 02: 193-9.
Nur SG, Buket O, Sezgi K, et al. Synthesis of methotrexate loaded chitosan nanoparticles and in vitro evaluation of the potential in treatment of prostate cancer. Anticancer Agents Med Chem (Formerly Current Medicinal Chemistry-Anti-Cancer Agents) 2016; 16: 1038-42.
Obaidat RM, Tashtoush BM, Bayan MF, Al Bustami RT, Alnaief M. Drying using supercritical fluid technology as a potential method for preparation of chitosan aerogel microparticles. AAPS PharmSciTech 2015; 16(6): 1235-44.
[] [PMID: 25761387]
Ordikhani F, Tamjid E, Simchi A. Characterization and antibacterial performance of electrodeposited chitosan-vancomycin composite coatings for prevention of implant-associated infections. Mater Sci Eng C 2014; 41: 240-8.
[] [PMID: 24907757]
Pandey AP, More MP, Karande KP, Chitalkar RV, Patil PO, Deshmukh PK. Optimization of desolvation process for fabrication of lactoferrin nanoparticles using quality by design approach. Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol 2017; 45(6): 1-14.
[] [PMID: 27420409]
Park K, Kim J-H, Nam YS, et al. Effect of polymer molecular weight on the tumor targeting characteristics of self-assembled glycol chitosan nanoparticles. J Control Release 2007; 122(3): 305-14.
[] [PMID: 17643545]
Pathania D, Gupta D, Kothiyal NC, Sharma G, Eldesoky GE, Naushad M. Preparation of a novel chitosan-g-poly(acrylamide)/Zn nanocomposite hydrogel and its applications for controlled drug delivery of ofloxacin. Int J Biol Macromol 2016; 84: 340-8.
[] [PMID: 26708432]
Patil J, Kamalapur M, Marapur S, Kadam D. Ionotropic gelation and polyelectrolyte complexation: The novel techniques to design hydrogel particulate sustained, modulated drug delivery system: A review. Dig J Nanomater Biostruct 2010; 5: 241-8.
Patil SD, Papadimitrakopoulos F, Burgess DJ. Dexamethasone-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid microspheres/poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel composite coatings for inflammation control. Diabetes Technol Ther 2004; 6(6): 887-97.
[] [PMID: 15684644]
Patra JK, Das G, Fraceto LF, et al. Nano based drug delivery systems: recent developments and future prospects. J Nanobiotechnology 2018; 16(1): 71-1.
[] [PMID: 30231877]
Quiñones JP, Peniche H, Peniche C. Chitosan based self-assembled nanoparticles in drug delivery. Polymers (Basel) 2018; 10(3): 10.
[] [PMID: 30966270]
Perera U, Rajapakse N. Chitosan nanoparticles: preparation, characterization, and applications. Seafood Processing By-Products 2014; pp. 371-87.
Phromsopha T, Baimark Y. Chitosan Microparticles Prepared by the Water-in-Oil Emulsion Solvent Diffusion Method for Drug Delivery. Biotechnology (Faisalabad) 2010; 9: 61-6.
Pourshahab PS, Gilani K, Moazeni E, Eslahi H, Fazeli MR, Jamalifar H. Preparation and characterization of spray dried inhalable powders containing chitosan nanoparticles for pulmonary delivery of isoniazid. J Microencapsul 2011; 28(7): 605-13.
[] [PMID: 21793647]
Prabaharan M. Review paper: chitosan derivatives as promising materials for controlled drug delivery. J Biomater Appl 2008; 23(1): 5-36.
[] [PMID: 18593819]
Rajalakshmi R, Muzib Y, Aruna U, Vinesha V, Rupangada V, Moorthy SB. Chitosan nanoparticles—an emerging trend in nanotechnology. Int J Drug Deliv 2014; 6: 204-29.
Rejinold NS, Muthunarayanan M, Muthuchelian K, Chennazhi KP, Nair SV, Jayakumar R. Saponin-loaded chitosan nanoparticles and their cytotoxicity to cancer cell lines in vitro. Carbohydr Polym 2011; 84: 407-16.
Remant Bahadur KC, Aryal S, Bhattarai SR, Bhattarai N, Kim CH, Kim HY. Stabilization of gold nanoparticles by hydrophobically-modified polycations. J Biomater Sci Polym Ed 2006; 17(5): 579-89.
[] [PMID: 16800156]
Riegger BR, Bäurer B, Mirzayeva A, Tovar GEM, Bach M. A systematic approach of chitosan nanoparticle preparation via emulsion crosslinking as potential adsorbent in wastewater treatment. Carbohydr Polym 2018; 180: 46-54.
[] [PMID: 29103520]
Rodrigues RA, Yamane LT, de Freitas VS. How to improve some properties and qualities of plant extracts and their derivatives using pharmacotechnical technology approach. In: Therapeutic medicinal plants: from lab to the market. 2015; pp. 197-216.
Sacco P, Cok M, Scognamiglio F, et al. Glycosylated-Chitosan Derivatives: A Systematic Review. Molecules 2020; 25(7): 1534.
[] [PMID: 32230971]
Saha R, Rakshit S, Verma PK, Mitra RK, Pal SK. Protein-cofactor binding and ultrafast electron transfer in riboflavin binding protein under the spatial confinement of nanoscopic reverse micelles. J Mol Recognit 2013; 26(2): 59-66.
[] [PMID: 23334913]
Sajeesh S, Sharma CP. Cyclodextrin-insulin complex encapsulated polymethacrylic acid based nanoparticles for oral insulin delivery. Int J Pharm 2006; 325(1-2): 147-54.
[] [PMID: 16859846]
Salatin S, Barar J, Barzegar-Jalali M, Adibkia K, Kiafar F, Jelvehgari M. Development of a nanoprecipitation method for the entrapment of a very water soluble drug into Eudragit RL nanoparticles. Res Pharm Sci 2017; 12(1): 1-14.
[] [PMID: 28255308]
Nur SG, Buket O, Sezgi K, et al. Synthesis of Methotrexate Loaded Chitosan nanoparticles and in vitro evaluation of the potential in treatment of prostate cancer. Anticancer Agents Med Chem 2016; 16(8): 1038-42.
[] [PMID: 26721835]
Sharifi S, Behzadi S, Laurent S, Forrest ML, Stroeve P, Mahmoudi M. Toxicity of nanomaterials. Chem Soc Rev 2012; 41(6): 2323-43.
[] [PMID: 22170510]
Shi X-Y, Fan X-G. Advances in nanoparticle system for deliverying drugs across the biological barriers. Zhongguo Yaoke Daxue Xuebao 2002; 33: 169-72.
Shinde AJ, More HN. Nanoparticles: As Carriers for Drug Delivery System. Res J Pharm Dos Forms Technol 2009; 1: 80-6.
Shu XZ, Zhu KJ. A novel approach to prepare tripolyphosphate/chitosan complex beads for controlled release drug delivery. Int J Pharm 2000; 201(1): 51-8.
[] [PMID: 10867264]
Silva J, Macedo G, Gambetta D, Giordano R, Gonçalves L. Immobilization of Candida antarctica lipase B by covalent attachment on chitosan-based hydrogels using different support activation strategies. Biochem Eng J 2012; 60: 16-24.
Silva N, Baptista da Silva S, Sarmento B, Pintado M. Chitosan nanoparticles for daptomycin delivery in ocular treatment of bacterial endophthalmitis. Drug Deliv 2015; 22: 885-93.
[PMID: 24266551]
Sonaje K, Chen Y-J, Chen H-L, et al. Enteric-coated capsules filled with freeze-dried chitosan/poly(γ-glutamic acid) nanoparticles for oral insulin delivery. Biomaterials 2010; 31(12): 3384-94.
[] [PMID: 20149435]
Songjiang Z, Lixiang W. Amyloid-beta associated with chitosan nano-carrier has favorable immunogenicity and permeates the BBB. AAPS PharmSciTech 2009; 10(3): 900-5.
[] [PMID: 19609682]
Sorlier P, Denuzière A, Viton C, Domard A. Relation between the degree of acetylation and the electrostatic properties of chitin and chitosan. Biomacromolecules 2001; 2(3): 765-72.
[] [PMID: 11710030]
Sosnik A, Seremeta KP. Advantages and challenges of the spray-drying technology for the production of pure drug particles and drug-loaded polymeric carriers. Adv Colloid Interface Sci 2015; 223: 40-54.
[] [PMID: 26043877]
Sreenivas SA, Pai KV. Thiolated chitosans: novel polymers for mucoadhesive drug delivery A review Tropical journal of pharmaceutical research (ISSN: 1596-5996) 2008; Vol 7(Num 3): 7.
Maya S, Indulekha S, Sukhithasri V, et al. Efficacy of tetracycline encapsulated O-carboxymethyl chitosan nanoparticles against intracellular infections of Staphylococcus aureus. Int J Biol Macromol 2012; 51(4): 392-9.
[] [PMID: 22705573]
Sun WZ, Lin WJ, Alai M. Preparation of microparticles for acid-labile lansoprazole by solvent evaporation method combined with a spray drying process. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis 2012; 20: 438-445+555.
Susan MA, Kaneko T, Noda A, Watanabe M. Ion gels prepared by in situ radical polymerization of vinyl monomers in an ionic liquid and their characterization as polymer electrolytes. J Am Chem Soc 2005; 127(13): 4976-83.
[] [PMID: 15796564]
Synowiecki J, Al-Khateeb NA. Production, properties, and some new applications of chitin and its derivatives 2003; 43: 145-71.
Szymańska E, Winnicka K. Stability of chitosan-a challenge for pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. Mar Drugs 2015; 13(4): 1819-46.
[] [PMID: 25837983]
Talegaonkar S, Azeem A, Ahmad FJ, Khar RK, Pathan SA, Khan ZI. Microemulsions: a novel approach to enhanced drug delivery. Recent Pat Drug Deliv Formul 2008; 2(3): 238-57.
[] [PMID: 19075911]
Tang Y, Ouyang M. Tailoring properties and functionalities of metal nanoparticles through crystallinity engineering. Nat Mater 2007; 6(10): 754-9.
[] [PMID: 17704781]
Teijeiro D, Remuñán-López C, Alonso M. Chitosan/cyclodextrin nanoparticles can efficiently transfect the airway epithelium in vitro. European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik 2008; ev 71: 257-63.
Tekkeli S, Kizilta ŞM. Current hplc methods for assay of nano drug delivery systems. Curr Top Med Chem 2017; 17: 1588-94.
[PMID: 28017146]
Thanou M, Verhoef JC, Marbach P, Junginger HE. Intestinal absorption of octreotide: N-trimethyl chitosan chloride (TMC) ameliorates the permeability and absorption properties of the somatostatin analogue in vitro and in vivo. J Pharm Sci 2000; 89(7): 951-7.
[<951:AID-JPS13>3.0.CO;2-1] [PMID: 10861597]
Thielbeer F, Donaldson K, Bradley M, et al. Surface functionalization affects the zeta potential, coronal stability and membranolytic activity of polymeric nanoparticles. Nanotoxicology 2014; 8: 202-11.
[PMID: 23379633]
Tiyaboonchai W, Limpeanchob N. Formulation and characterization of amphotericin B-chitosan-dextran sulfate nanoparticles. Int J Pharm 2007; 329(1-2): 142-9.
[] [PMID: 17000065]
Tokumitsu H, Ichikawa H, Fukumori Y. Chitosan-gadopentetic acid complex nanoparticles for gadolinium neutron-capture therapy of cancer: preparation by novel emulsion-droplet coalescence technique and characterization. Pharm Res 1999; 16(12): 1830-5.
[] [PMID: 10644070]
Uskoković V. Dynamic light scattering based microelectrophoresis: main prospects and limitations. J Dispers Sci Technol 2012; 33(12): 1762-86.
[] [PMID: 23904690]
Varshosaz J, Sadrai H, Alinagari R. Nasal delivery of insulin using chitosan microspheres. J Microencapsul 2004; 21(7): 761-74.
[] [PMID: 15799226]
Vauthier C, Bouchemal K. Methods for the preparation and manufacture of polymeric nanoparticles. Pharm Res 2009; 26(5): 1025-58.
[] [PMID: 19107579]
Vivek R, Nipun Babu V, Thangam R, Subramanian KS, Kannan S. pH-responsive drug delivery of chitosan nanoparticles as Tamoxifen carriers for effective anti-tumor activity in breast cancer cells. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2013a; 111: 117-23.
[] [PMID: 23787278]
Vivek R, Nipun Babu V, Thangam R, Subramanian KS, Kannan S. pH-responsive drug delivery of chitosan nanoparticles as Tamoxifen carriers for effective anti-tumor activity in breast cancer cells. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2013b; 111: 117-23.
[] [PMID: 23787278]
Wan A, Sun Y, Li H. Characterization of novel quaternary chitosan derivative nanoparticles loaded with protein. J Appl Polym Sci 2009; 114: 2639-47.
Wang JJ, Zeng ZW, Xiao RZ, et al. Recent advances of chitosan nanoparticles as drug carriers. Int J Nanomedicine 2011; 6: 765-74.
[PMID: 21589644]
Wang Q, Zhang J, Wang A. Preparation and characterization of a novel pH-sensitive chitosan-g-poly (acrylic acid)/attapulgite/sodium alginate composite hydrogel bead for controlled release of diclofenac sodium. Carbohydr Polym 2009; 78: 731-7.
Wang Y-S, Liu L-R, Jiang Q, Zhang Q-Q. Self-aggregated nanoparticles of cholesterol-modified chitosan conjugate as a novel carrier of epirubicin. Eur Polym J 2007a; 43: 43-51.
Wang Y-S, Liu L-R, Jiang Q, Zhang Q-Q. Self-aggregated nanoparticles of cholesterol-modified chitosan conjugate as a novel carrier of epirubicin. Eur Polym J 2007b; 43: 43-51.
Wang Y, Li P, Truong-Dinh Tran T, Zhang J, Kong L. Manufacturing techniques and surface engineering of polymer based nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery to cancer. Nanomaterials (Basel) 2016a; 6(2): 26.
[] [PMID: 28344283]
Wang Y, Li P, Truong-Dinh Tran T, Zhang J, Kong L. Manufacturing techniques and surface engineering of polymer based nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery to cancer. Nanomaterials (Basel) 2016b; 6(2): 6.
[] [PMID: 28344283]
Wissing SA, Kayser O, Müller RH. Solid lipid nanoparticles for parenteral drug delivery. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2004; 56(9): 1257-72.
[] [PMID: 15109768]
Xing K, Chen XG, Liu CS, Cha DS, Park HJ. Oleoyl-chitosan nanoparticles inhibits Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by damaging the cell membrane and putative binding to extracellular or intracellular targets. Int J Food Microbiol 2009; 132(2-3): 127-33.
[] [PMID: 19439383]
Yang J, Han S, Zheng H, Dong H, Liu J. Preparation and application of micro/nanoparticles based on natural polysaccharides. Carbohydr Polym 2015; 123: 53-66.
[] [PMID: 25843834]
Yang Z, Leon J, Martin M, et al. Pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of near-infrared fluorescence polymeric nanoparticles. Nanotechnology 2009; 20(16): 165101-.
[] [PMID: 19420561]
Younes I, Rinaudo M. Chitin and chitosan preparation from marine sources. Structure, properties and applications. Mar Drugs 2015; 13(3): 1133-74.
[] [PMID: 25738328]
Zerkoune L, Lesieur S, Putaux J-L, et al. Mesoporous self-assembled nanoparticles of biotransesterified cyclodextrins and nonlamellar lipids as carriers of water-insoluble substances. Soft Matter 2016; 12(36): 7539-50.
[] [PMID: 27714323]
Zhang H, Hong K, Mays JW. Synthesis of block copolymers of styrene and methyl methacrylate by conventional free radical polymerization in room temperature ionic liquids. Macromolecules 2002; 35: 5738-41.
Zhang Y, Chan HF, Leong KW. Advanced materials and processing for drug delivery: the past and the future. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2013; 65(1): 104-20.
[] [PMID: 23088863]
Zohuriaan-Mehr MJ. Advances in chitin and chitosan modification through graft copolymerization: A comprehensive review. Iran Polym J 2005; 14: 235-65.

Rights & Permissions Print Export Cite as
© 2022 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy