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ISSN (Print): 2666-7967
ISSN (Online): 2666-7975

Review Article

Pathogenesis, Clinical Manifestation, Diagnosis, Pathological Findings, Treatment Options, Preventive Measures, and Risk Factors of COVID-19

Author(s): Mohammad Asif, Anshuman Patel, May Bin-Jumah, Sadaf Jamal Gilani, Iqra Rahat, Mohamad Taleuzzaman, Neha Gandhi, Syed Sarim Imam and Chandra Kala*

Volume 2, Issue 1, 2021

Published on: 09 July, 2020

Page: [59 - 72] Pages: 14

DOI: 10.2174/2666796701999200709174240


Background: COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2. The disease has hit hard around the globe and is now a pandemic. As of April 01, 2020, a total of 875,560 cases have been reported and the figures are increasing day by day. Currently, there is no treatment or vaccine available for curing COVID-19 and pharmaceutical companies are racing toward the common goal of achieving the cure.

Methods: Scientific databases, including Science direct, Pub med, Elsevier, Scopus, and Nature, were explored. Data has also been accessed from case reports, newspaper reports, internet data, World Health Organisation (WHO) reports, and Centre of Disease Control (CDCs) reports. The US National Library of Medicine,, were accessed to get information about the ongoing clinical trials. The literature survey started in the first week of February 2020 and was completed in the first week of April 2020. Additional literature survey was done in the second week of June 2020.

Results: The epicentre of COVID-19 is Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China. Coronavirus belongs to Order Nidovirale and is subdivided into four groups alpha, beta, gamma, and delta. Coronavirus 229E, NL63, HKU1, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV are known to infect humans. It is an enveloped, nonsegmented positive-sense RNA virus of size 30-32 kb with several structural and accessory proteins. The pathogenesis of COVID-19 involves attachment of Spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2 to the angiotensin- converting enzyme 2(ACE2) receptor present on the host cell membrane. Clinical manifestation of COVID-19 include fever, cough, complicated dyspnoea, pneumonia, etc. Real-time -PCR is a sensitive test for the detection of SARS-CoV. Remdesivir, Bevacizumab, Darunavir and cobicistat, lopinavirritonavir, Oseltamavir, hydroxychloroquine, Sarilumab, mRNA -1273, Ad5-nCoV are some of the drugs under the clinical phase of the trial. People with A-positive blood group, with comorbidities like diabetes, hypertension, chronic pulmonary obstructive disease, substance abuse disorders, immunocompromised individuals, health care workers, and older adults are at high risk of getting infected with SARS-CoV-2.

Conclusion: This article gives insight into the occurrence of COVID-19, classification and structure of SARS-CoV-2, pathogenesis, pathological findings, clinical manifestation, diagnosis, potential treatment options and prevention, and people at risk of COVID-19.

Keywords: COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, pathogenesis, pathological findings, diagnosis, treatment, vaccines.

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