Generic placeholder image



ISSN (Print): 2666-7967
ISSN (Online): 2666-7975

Review Article

The Comprehensive Appraisal of COVID-19: Its’ Clinical Panorama from Virology till Management and Beyond

Author(s): Iftikhar Haider Naqvi* and Saiyeda Nayema Zehra Rizvi

Volume 1, Issue 1, 2020

Page: [57 - 72] Pages: 16

DOI: 10.2174/2666796701999200701132336


Severe acute respiratory syndrome, caused by SARS-CoV-2 disease (COVID-19), was first reported in China, and has laid the entire globe at a standstill, with an uncertain future, and a possible economic disaster. The World Health Organization (WHO), on March 11th 2020, avowed COVID-19 a pandemic considering its global pervasiveness. The multi-dimensional challenges include the combat with present available treatment options while simultaneously hastening scientific research for the development of definitive therapeutics and vaccine for this pandemic. The research advancement related to earlier epidemics of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) by the same coronavirus family provides the understanding of basic and clinical virology, pathogenesis and therapeutics of SARS-CoV-2. The dearth of definitive therapeutics and vaccine renders COVID-19 pandemic a public health challenge globally. This comprehensive review of virology, pathogenesis, and management will abet quarters of public health authorities and medical fraternity to better understand COVID-19.

Keywords: Acute respiratory distress syndrome, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, viral pneumonia, cytokine storm syndrome.

Zhu N, Zhang D, Wang W, et al. China Novel Coronavirus investigating and research team. N Engl J Med 2020; 382(8): 727-33.
[] [PMID: 31978945]
Li Q, Guan X, Wu P, et al. Early transmission dynamics in Wuhan, China, of Novel Coronavirus-infected pneumonia. N Engl J Med 2020; 382(13): 1199-207.
[] [PMID: 31995857]
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Novel coronavirus, Wuhan. China Information for Healthcare Professionals.
WMHC. Wuhan municipal health and health commission’s briefing on the current pneumonia epidemic situation in our city 2020. Detail/2019123108989
WHO. Rolling updates on coronavirus disease (COVID-19).
WHO. WHO Director-General’s opening remarks at the media briefing on COVID-1 2020.
CDC. COVID-19 response team. severe outcomes among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) - United States, February 12-March 16, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020; 69(12): 343-6.
[] [PMID: 32214079]
Epidemia COVID-19 epicentro.iss.it2020.
Fehr AR, Perlman S. Coronaviruses: an overview of their replication and pathogenesis. Methods Mol Biol 2015; 1282: 1-23.
[] [PMID: 25720466]
Cascella M, Rajnik M, Cuomo A, Dulebohn SC, Di Napoli R. Features, evaluation and treatment coronavirus (COVID-19) StatPearls 2020.
Chen Y, Liu Q, Guo D. Emerging coronaviruses: Genome structure, replication, and pathogenesis. J Med Virol 2020; 92(4): 418-23.
[] [PMID: 31967327]
Wu F, Zhao S, Yu B, et al. Complete genome characterization of a novel coronavirus associated with severe human respiratory disease in Wuhan, China. bioRxiv 2020.
Lu R, Zhao X, Li J, et al. Genomic characterisation and epidemiology of 2019 novel coronavirus: implications for virus origins and receptor binding. Lancet 2020; 395(10224): 565-74.
[] [PMID: 32007145]
Vijaykrishna D, Smith GJ, Zhang JX, Peiris JS, Chen H, Guan Y. Evolutionary insights into the ecology of coronaviruses. J Virol 2007; 81(8): 4012-20.
[] [PMID: 17267506]
Corman VM, Muth D, Niemeyer D, Drosten C. Hosts and sources of endemic human coronaviruses Advances in virus research. Academic Press 2018; 100: 163-88.
Ge XY, Li JL, Yang XL, et al. Isolation and characterization of a bat SARS-like coronavirus that uses the ACE2 receptor. Nature 2013; 503(7477): 535-8.
[] [PMID: 24172901]
Zhou P, Yang XL, Wang XG, et al. A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin. Nature 2020; 579(7798): 270-3.
[] [PMID: 32015507]
Wang H, Li X, Li T, et al. The genetic sequence, origin, and diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2020.
[] [PMID: 32333222]
Tang X, Wu C, Li X, et al. On the origin and continuing evolution of SARS-CoV-2. Natl Sci Rev 2020.
General office of national health commission; General office of national administration of traditional Chinese medicine. diagnostic and treatment protocol for novel Coronavirus pneumonia
van Doremalen N, Bushmaker T, Morris DH, et al. Aerosol and surface stability of SARS-CoV-2 as compared with SARS-CoV-1. N Engl J Med 2020; 382(16): 1564-7.
[] [PMID: 32182409]
Ghinai I, McPherson TD, Hunter JC, et al. Illinois COVID-19 investigation team. First known person-to-person transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the USA. Lancet 2020; 395(10230): 1137-44.
[] [PMID: 32178768]
Xiao F, Tang M, Zheng X, Liu Y, Li X, Shan H. Evidence for gastrointestinal infection of SARS-CoV-2. Gastroenterology 2020; 158(6): 1831-1833.e3. [published online ahead of print, 2020 Mar 3]
[] [PMID: 32142773]
Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet 2020; 395(10223): 497-506.
[] [PMID: 31986264]
Cheng Y, Luo R, Wang K, et al. Kidney impairment is associated with in-hospital death of COVID-19 patients. MedRxiv 2020.
Guan GW, Gao L, Wang JW, et al. Exploring the mechanism of liver enzyme abnormalities in patients with novel coronavirusinfected pneumonia Zhonghua gan zang bing za zhi= Zhonghua ganzangbing zazhi= Chinese journal of hepatology 2020; 28: E002
Wang D, Hu B, Hu C, et al. Clinical characteristics of 138 hospitalized patients with 2019 novel coronavirus–infected pneumonia in Wuhan, China. JAMA 2020; 323: 1061-9.
[] [PMID: 32031570]
Gu J, Gong E, Zhang B, et al. Multiple organ infection and the pathogenesis of SARS. J Exp Med 2005; 202(3): 415-24.
[] [PMID: 16043521]
Zou X, Chen K, Zou J, Han P, Hao J, Han Z. Single-cell RNA-seq data analysis on the receptor ACE2 expression reveals the potential risk of different human organs vulnerable to 2019-nCoV infection. Front Med 2020; 14(2): 185-92.
[] [PMID: 32170560]
Fan C, Li K, Ding Y, Lu WL, Wang J. ACE2 expression in kidney and testis may cause kidney and testis damage after 2019-nCoV infection. MedRxiv 2019.
Xu Z, Shi L, Wang Y, et al. Pathological findings of COVID-19 associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Lancet Respir Med 2020; 8(4): 420-2. [published correction appears in Lancet Respir Med. 2020 Feb 25;].
[] [PMID: 32085846]
Ding Y, Wang H, Shen H, et al. The clinical pathology of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS): a report from China. J Pathol 2003; 200(3): 282-9.
[] [PMID: 12845623]
Ng DL, Al Hosani F, Keating MK, et al. Clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural findings of a fatal case of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection in the United Arab Emirates, April 2014. Am J Pathol 2016; 186(3): 652-8.
[] [PMID: 26857507]
Qian L, Wang R, Qu G, et al. General observation report on the system anatomy of the dead Coronavirus pneumonia. J Forensic Med 2020; 36: 21-3.
Ruan Q, Yang K, Wang W, Jiang L, Song J. Clinical predictors of mortality due to COVID-19 based on an analysis of data of 150 patients from Wuhan, China. Intensive Care Med 2020; 46(5): 846- 8. [published online ahead of print, 2020 Mar 3]. [published correction appears in Intensive Care Med. 2020 Apr 6;].
[] [PMID: 32125452]
Meyer NJ, Christie JD. Genetic heterogeneity and risk of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2013; 34(4): 459-74.
[] [PMID: 23934715]
Thompson BT, Chambers RC, Liu KD. Acute respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med 2017; 377(6): 562-72.
[] [PMID: 28792873]
Canna SW, Behrens EM. Making sense of the cytokine storm: a conceptual framework for understanding, diagnosing, and treating hemophagocytic syndromes. Pediatr Clin North Am 2012; 59(2): 329-44.
[] [PMID: 22560573]
Fu Y, Cheng Y, Wu Y. Understanding SARS-CoV-2-mediated inflammatory responses: from mechanisms to potential therapeutic tools. Virol Sin 2020; 3: 1-6.
[] [PMID: 32125642]
Yang M. Cell pyroptosis, a potential pathogenic mechanism of 2019.-nCoV infection. SSRN 2020
Imai Y, Kuba K, Penninger JM. The discovery of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and its role in acute lung injury in mice. Exp Physiol 2008; 93(5): 543-8.
[] [PMID: 18448662]
Wang Y, Wang Y, Chen Y, Qin Q. Unique epidemiological and clinical features of the emerging 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) implicate special control measures. J Med Virol 2020; 92(6): 568-76.
[] [PMID: 32134116]
Wu C, Chen X, Cai Y, et al. Risk factors associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome and death in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia in Wuhan, China. JAMA Intern Med 2020. [published online ahead of print, 2020 Mar 13].
[] [PMID: 32167524]
Shi S, Qin M, Shen B, et al. Association of cardiac injury with mortality in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China. JAMA Cardiol 2020. [published online ahead of print, 2020 Mar 25].
[] [PMID: 32211816]
Inciardi RM, Lupi L, Zaccone G, et al. Cardiac involvement in a patient with Coronavirus disease 2019.(COVID-19). JAMA Cardiol 2020. [published online ahead of print, 2020 Mar 27].
[] [PMID: 32219357]
Arentz M, Yim E, Klaff L, et al. Characteristics and outcomes of 21 critically ill patients with COVID-19 in Washington State. JAMA 2020. [published online ahead of print, 2020 Mar 19]
[] [PMID: 32191259]
Wu Q, Zhou L, Sun X, et al. Altered lipid metabolism in recovered sars patients twelve years after infection. Sci Rep 2017; 7(1): 9110.
[] [PMID: 28831119]
Holshue ML, DeBolt C, Lindquist S, et al. Washington state 2019-nCoV case investigation team. First case of 2019 novel Coronavirus in the United States. N Engl J Med 2020; 382(10): 929-36.
[] [PMID: 32004427]
Yang Z, Li G, Dai X, Liu G, Li G, Jie Y. Three cases of novel coronavirus pneumonia with viral nucleic acids still positive in stool after throat swab detection turned negative. Chin J Dig 2020; 40: E002-2.
Zhang J, Wang S, Xue Y. Fecal specimen diagnosis 2019 novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia. J Med Virol 2020; 92(6): 680-2. [published online ahead of print, 2020 Mar 3].
[] [PMID: 32124995]
Fang D, Ma J, Guan J, Wang M, Song Y, Tian D. Manifestations of digestive system in hospitalized patients with novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a single-center, descriptive study. Chin J Dig 2020; 40.
Tian Y, Rong L, Nian W, He Y. Review article: gastrointestinal features in COVID-19 and the possibility of faecal transmission. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2020; 51: 843-51.
Ping A, Hongbin C, Xiaoda J, et al. Clinical features of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia presented gastrointestinal symptoms but without fever onset Preprints with the Lancet 2020.
Amirian ES. Potential fecal transmission of SARS-CoV-2: Current evidence and implications for public health. Int J Infect Dis 2020; 95: 363-70. [published online ahead of print, 2020 Apr 23].
[] [PMID: 32335340]
Marc D, Dominique JF, Élodie B, et al. Human Coronavirus: respiratory pathogens revisited as infectious neuroinvasive, neurotropic, and neurovirulent agents. CRC Press 2013; pp. 93-122.
Arabi YM, Balkhy HH, Hayden FG, et al. Middle East respiratory syndrome. N Engl J Med 2017; 376(6): 584-94.
[] [PMID: 28177862]
Mao L, Jin H, Wang M, et al. Neurologic manifestations of hospitalized patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 in Wuhan, China. JAMA Neurol 2020. [published online ahead of print, 2020 Apr 10
[] [PMID: 32275288]
Karimi N, Sharifi Razavi A, Rouhani N. Frequent convulsive seizures in an adult patient with COVID-19: A case report. Iran Red Crescent Med J 2020.
First presumptive case of encephalitis linked to COVID-19 reported - Medscape 2020.
Li Y, Zhai P, Ding Y. The impact of COVID-19 on ischemic stroke: A case report. Research Square 2020.
Brooks M. Megan Brooks: First case of COVID-19 presenting as Guillain-Barré reported - Medscape 2020.
National Health Commission of the People′s Republic of China Diagnosis and treatment of the novel coronavirus pneumonia 2020.
Singer M, Deutschman CS, Seymour CW, et al. The third international consensus definitions for sepsis and septic shock (Sepsis-3). JAMA 2016; 315(8): 801-10.
[] [PMID: 26903338]
Bhatraju PK, Ghassemieh BJ, Nichols M, et al. Covid-19 in critically Ill patients in the Seattle region - Case Series. N Engl J Med 2020.
Seymour CW, Kennedy JN, Wang S, et al. Derivation, validation, and potential treatment implications of novel clinical phenotypes for sepsis. JAMA 2019; 321(20): 2003-17.
[] [PMID: 31104070]
China Food and Drug Administration. China food and drug administration emergency approval of new coronavirus nucleic acid detection reagents
Jin Y, Yang H, Ji W, et al. Virology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and control of COVID-19. Viruses 2020; 12(4) E372
[] [PMID: 32230900]
Zhao J, Yuan Q, Wang H, et al. Antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in patients of novel coronavirus disease. Clin Infect Dis 2020.
Myhrvold C, Freije CA, Gootenberg JS, et al. Field-deployable viral diagnostics using CRISPR-Cas13. Science 2018; 360(6387): 444-8.
[] [PMID: 29700266]
Kanne JP, Chest CT, Chest CT. Findings in 2019 novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Infections from Wuhan, China: key points for the radiologist. Radiology 2020; 295(1): 16-7.
[] [PMID: 32017662]
Hui DS, Chow BK, Lo T, et al. Exhaled air dispersion during high-flow nasal cannula therapy versus CPAP via different masks. Eur Respir J 2019; 53(4) 1802339
[] [PMID: 30705129]
Poston JT, Patel BK, Davis AM. Management of critically Ill adults with COVID-19. JAMA 2020.
[] [PMID: 32215647]
Walkey AJ, Goligher EC, Del Sorbo L, et al. Low tidal volume versus non-volume-limited strategies for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. A systematic review and metaanalysis. Ann Am Thorac Soc 2017; 14(Supplement_4): S271-9.
[] [PMID: 28846440]
Fan E, Del Sorbo L, Goligher EC, et al. American Thoracic Society, European Society of Intensive Care Medicine, and Society of Critical Care Medicine. An Official American Thoracic Society/European Society of Intensive Care Medicine/Society of Critical Care Medicine Clinical Practice Guideline: Mechanical ventilation in adult patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2017; 195(9): 1253-63.
[] [PMID: 28459336]
Rochwerg B, Oczkowski SJ, Siemieniuk RAC, et al. Corticosteroids in Sepsis: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis. Crit Care Med 2018; 46(9): 1411-20.
[] [PMID: 29979221]
Lian XJ, Huang DZ, Cao YS, et al. Reevaluating the role of corticosteroids in septic shock: an updated meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. BioMed Res Int 2019; 2019, 3175047
[] [PMID: 31281831]
Cao B, Wang Y, Wen D, et al. A Trial of Lopinavir-Ritonavir in adults hospitalized with severe Covid-19. N Engl J Med 2020.
Martinez MA. Compounds with therapeutic potential against novel respiratory 2019 coronavirus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2020; 64(5): e00399-20.
[] [PMID: 32152082]
Hoehl S, Rabenau H, Berger A, et al. Evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in returning travelers from Wuhan, China. N Engl J Med 2020; 382(13): 1278-80.
[] [PMID: 32069388]
Wang M, Cao R, Zhang L, et al. Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitro. Cell Res 2020; 30(3): 269-71.
[] [PMID: 32020029]
Yamamoto N, Yang R, Yoshinaka Y, et al. HIV protease inhibitor nelfinavir inhibits replication of SARS-associated coronavirus. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2004; 318(3): 719-25.
[] [PMID: 15144898]
FirstWave bio to initiate phase 2a/2b study of FW-1022, a proprietary form of Niclosamide, to treat COVID-19 FirstWave Bio 2020.
AIM ImmunoTech's drug ampligen to be tested by Japan's National Institute of Infectious Diseases as a Potential Treatment for the New SARS Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) responsible for the new human infectious disease COVID-19 AIM ImmunoTech 2020.
Caly L, Druce JD, Catton MG, Jans DA, Wagstaff KM. The FDA-approved drug ivermectin inhibits the replication of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. Antiviral Res 2020; 178, 104787 [ published online ahead of print, 2020 Apr 3
[] [PMID: 32251768]
Yao X, Ye F, Zhang M, et al. In Vitro Antiviral activity and projection of optimized dosing design of Hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Clin Infect Dis 2020.
Gao J, Tian Z, Yang X. Breakthrough: Chloroquine phosphate has shown apparent efficacy in treatment of COVID-19 associated pneumonia in clinical studies. Biosci Trends 2020; 14(1): 72-3.
[] [PMID: 32074550]
Multicenter collaboration group of department of science and technology of Guangdong Province and health commission of Guangdong Province for chloroquine in the treatment of novel coronavirus pneumonia Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Medicine 2020; 43: 185- 88.
Chen Z, Hu J, Zhang Z, et al. Efficacy of hydroxychloroquine in patients with COVID-19: results of a randomized clinical trial preprint
IDSA. Infectious Diseases Society of America Guidelines on the treatment and management of patients with COVID-19
Colson P, Rolain JM, Raoult D. Chloroquine for the 2019 novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Int J Antimicrob Agents 2020; 55(3) 105923
[] [PMID: 32070753]
Post-exposure Prophylaxis for SARS-Coronavirus-2
Gautret P, Lagier JC, Parola P, et al. Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin as a treatment of COVID-19: results of an open-label non-randomized clinical trial. Int J Antimicrob Agents 2020. 105949 [published online ahead of print, 2020 Mar 20]
[] [PMID: 32205204]
Gautret P, Lagier JC, Parola P, et al. Clinical and microbiological effect of a combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin in 80 COVID-19 patients with at least a six-day follow up: A pilot observational study. Travel Med Infect Dis 2020. 34101663 [published online ahead of print, 2020 Apr 11]
[] [PMID: 32289548]
Molina JM, Delaugerre C, Le Goff J, et al. No evidence of rapid antiviral clearance or clinical benefit with the combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin in patients with severe COVID-19 infection. Med Mal Infect 2020.
Ray WA, Murray KT, Hall K, Arbogast PG, Stein CM. Azithromycin and the risk of cardiovascular death. N Engl J Med 2012; 366(20): 1881-90.
[] [PMID: 22591294]
Xu X, Han M, Li T, et al. Effective treatment of severe COVID-19 patients with tocilizumab. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2020; 117(20): 10970-5.
[] [PMID: 32350134]
Genentech initiates phase III clinical trial of actemra in hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia 2020.
Regeneron and Sanofi Begin Global Kevzara (Sarilumab) clinical trial program in patients with severe COVID-19. 2020.
Tiziana Life Sciences plc to expedite development of its fully human anti-interleukin-6-receptor monoclonal antibody, a potential treatment of certain patients infected with coronavirus COVID-19 Tiziana Life Sciences 2020.
Casadevall A, Pirofski LA. The convalescent sera option for containing COVID-19. J Clin Invest 2020; 130(4): 1545-8.
[] [PMID: 32167489]
Bloch EM, Shoham S, Casadevall A, et al. Deployment of convalescent plasma for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19. J Clin Invest 2020; 130(6): 2757-65. [published online ahead of print, 2020 Apr 7
[] [PMID: 32254064]
Shen C, Wang Z, Zhao F, et al. Treatment of 5 critically Ill patients with COVID-19 with convalescent plasma. JAMA 2020. e204783 [published online ahead of print, 2020 Mar 27]
[] [PMID: 32219428]
Duan K, Liu B, Li C, et al. Effectiveness of convalescent plasma therapy in severe COVID-19 patients. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2020; 117(17): 9490-6. [published online ahead of print, 2020 Apr 6]
[] [PMID: 32253318]
Stebbing J, Phelan A, Griffin I, et al. COVID-19: combining antiviral and anti-inflammatory treatments. Lancet Infect Dis 2020; 20(4): 400-2.
[] [PMID: 32113509]
Richardson P, Griffin I, Tucker C, et al. Baricitinib as potential treatment for 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease. Lancet 2020; 395(10223): e30-1.
[] [PMID: 32032529]
Lilly Begins clinical testing of therapies for COVID-19. Eli Lilly Co 2020.
Zhang C, Zhang Y, Qin Y, et al. Ifenprodil and Flavopiridol identified by Genomewide RNA interference screening as effective drugs to ameliorate murine acute lung injury after Influenza A H5N1 Virus Infection. mSystems 2019; 4(6): e00431-19.
[] [PMID: 31822599]
Mesoblast to evaluate anti-inflammatory cell therapy remestemcel- L for treatment of COVID-19 lung disease Mesoblast 2020.
FDA clears investigational new drug application for Mesoblast to use remestemcel-L in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by COVID-19 Mesoblast 2020.
Eculizumab (Soliris) in Covid-19 Infected Patients (SOLID-C19)
Randomized A A. Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Study to Investigate the Efficacy of Tradipitant in Treating Inflammatory Lung Injury and Improving Clinical Outcomes Associated With Severe or Critical COVID-19
Takeda initiates development of a plasma-derived therapy for COVID-19 Takeda 2020.
Fang L, Karakiulakis G, Roth M. Are patients with hypertension and diabetes mellitus at increased risk for COVID-19 infection? Lancet Respir Med 2020; 8(4) e21
[] [PMID: 32171062]
Clerkin KJ, Fried JA, Raikhelkar J, et al. COVID-19 and cardiovascular disease. Circulation 2020; 141(20): 1648-55. [published online ahead of print, 2020 Mar 21]
[] [PMID: 32200663]
Ferrario CM, Jessup J, Chappell MC, et al. Effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition and angiotensin II receptor blockers on cardiac angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. Circulation 2005; 111(20): 2605-10.
[] [PMID: 15897343]
Klimas J, Olvedy M, Ochodnicka-Mackovicova K, et al. Perinatally administered losartan augments renal ACE2 expression but not cardiac or renal Mas receptor in spontaneously hypertensive rats. J Cell Mol Med 2015; 19(8): 1965-74.
[] [PMID: 25766467]
Walters TE, Kalman JM, Patel SK, Mearns M, Velkoska E, Burrell LM. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 activity and human atrial fibrillation: increased plasma angiotensin converting enzyme 2 activity is associated with atrial fibrillation and more advanced left atrial structural remodelling. Europace 2017; 19(8): 1280-7.
[] [PMID: 27738071]
Burchill LJ, Velkoska E, Dean RG, Griggs K, Patel SK, Burrell LM. Combination renin-angiotensin system blockade and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 in experimental myocardial infarction: implications for future therapeutic directions. Clin Sci (Lond) 2012; 123(11): 649-58.
[] [PMID: 22715807]
Docherty AB, Harrison EM, Green CA, et al. Features of 16,749 hospitalized UK patients with COVID-19 using the ISARIC WHO Clinical Characterization Protocol. medRxiv 2020.
Karimi-Zarchi M, Neamatzadeh H, Dastgheib SA, et al. Vertical transmission of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) from infected pregnant mothers to neonates: A review. Fetal Pediatr Pathol 2020; 39(3): 246-50. [published online ahead of print, 2020 Apr 2
[] [PMID: 32238084]
Fornari Federico. Vertical transmission of covid-19-A systematic review Journal of pediatrics, perinatology and child health 2020; 4: 007-13
The Use PUL-042 Inhalation Solution to Prevent COVID-19 in Adults Exposed to SARS-CoV-2
Ma S, Gao P, Lu D, Wang G. Prudently conduct the engineering and synthesis of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Synth Syst Biotechnol 2020.
Clover and GSK announce research collaboration to evaluate coronavirus (COVID-19) vaccine candidate with pandemic adjuvant system GlaxoSmithKline and Clover Biopharmaceuticals 2020.
Yu P, Qi F, Xu Y, et al. Age-related rhesus macaque models of COVID-19. Animal Model Exp Med 2020; 3(1): 93-7.
[] [PMID: 32318665]
Novavax awarded funding from CEPI for COVID-19 vaccine development Novavax 2020.
Codagenix and Serum Institute of India Initiate Co-Development of a Scalable, Live-Attenuated Vaccine Against the 2019 Novel Coronavirus, COVID-19 Codagenix, Inc 2020.
Applied DNA. Takis Biotech design four Covid-19 vaccine candidates 2020.

© 2023 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy