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Coronaviruses

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 2666-7967
ISSN (Online): 2666-7975

Review Article

Impact and Inescapable Effects of Coronavirus: History to Modern Pandemic Episode

Author(s): Suman K. Ray, Yamini Meshram and Sukhes Mukherjee*

Volume 2, Issue 1, 2021

Published on: 01 July, 2020

Page: [44 - 58] Pages: 15

DOI: 10.2174/2666796701999200701123714

Abstract

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an acute respiratory tract infection causing a pandemic that emerged in 2019 initially in China involving 13.8% cases with severe, and 6.1% with critical course and later throughout the globe. Vaccines or antiviral medications are yet to be used to prevent or treat infections of Human Coronavirus (HCoV). The much-discovered HCoV found in 2003, SARSCOVID- 19, which caused respiratory syndrome, has special pathogenesis as it causes respiratory tract infection. The coronavirus spike protein's association with its host cell receptor complement is crucial in deciding the virus infectivity, tissue tropism and species variety. SARS, COVID-19, infects human cells by binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor and uses the TMPRSS2 cell protease to activate it. Lungs are most affected by COVID-19 as host cells are accessed by the virus through ACE2, which is most abundant in alveolar cells of the lungs. Special attention and efforts should be given in reducing transmission in vulnerable populations, including infants, health care providers and the elderly. COVID 19, is the main causative agent of potentially lethal disease and is of significant concern for global public health and in pandemics which was highlighted in this review.

Keywords: Coronavirus, COVID-19, ACE2, TMPRSS2, pandemic, antibody therapy.


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