Generic placeholder image

Recent Advances in Electrical & Electronic Engineering


ISSN (Print): 2352-0965
ISSN (Online): 2352-0973

Research Article

A Blockchain Based Buyer-seller Watermark Protocol with Trustless Third Party

Author(s): Chunlin Song, Hong Wang, Wei Zhang, Sud Sudirman and Haogang Zhu*

Volume 13 , Issue 6 , 2020

Page: [942 - 950] Pages: 9

DOI: 10.2174/2352096513999200623121213

Price: $65


Background: With the development and innovation of digital information technologies and new-generation Internet information platforms, new types of information exchange methods have been spawned. It has broken the restriction of the traditional internet boundary, and integrated all round connections between people and objects.

Methods: Based on the above progresses, digital multimedia contents distributed or published much more convenient on the internet than before and most of them without any copyright protection. The dishonest owner can easily copy and distribute digital multimedia content without reducing any perceptual quality. According to the relative concerns, watermark protocol networks play a very important role in the usage tracking and copyrights infringement authentication, etc. However, most of the watermark protocols always require a “fully trusted third party”, which has a potential risk to suffer conspiracy attack.

Results: Therefore, in this paper, we focus on designing a watermark protocol with trustless third party via blockchain for protecting copyrights of owners that they want to publish or distribute on the internet. The proposed watermark protocol includes three sub-protocols which covers the negotiation process, transaction process and identification processes.

Conclusion: In addition, this paper also provides a fully detail analysis that describes the benefits and weaknesses of current solution.

Keywords: Watermark protocol, copyright protection, blockchain, multiparty, trustless third party, intelligence.

Graphical Abstract
C.L. Lei, P.L. Yu, P.L. Tsai, and M.H. Chan, "An efficient and anonymous buyer-seller watermarking protocol", IEEE Trans. Image Process., vol. 13, no. 12, pp. 1618-1626, 2004.
[ PMID: 15575156]
F. Frattolillo, "Watermark protocol for web context", IEEE Trans. Inf. Forensics Security, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 350-363, 2007.
D. Hu, and Q. Li, "A secure and practical buyer-seller watermark protocol", In International Conference on Multimedia Information Networking and Security, 2009pp. 105-108
A. Rial, J. Balasch, and B. Preneel, "A privacy-preserving buyer-seller watermark protocol based on priced oblivious transfer", IEEE Trans. Inf. Forensics Security, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 202-212, 2011.
Y. Peng, C. Wang, Y. Fang, and W. Li, "Anonymous watermark protocol for vector spatial data", International Conference on Computer Science & Service System, 2012pp. 2095-2098
F. Frattolillo, "Watermark protocol: Problems, challenges and a possible solution", Comput. J., vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 944-960, 2014.
C. Chen, C. Chen, D. Li, and P. Chen, "A verifiable and secret buyer-seller watermark protocol", IETE Tech. Rev., vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 104-113, 2015.
J. Huang, F. Jeng, and T. Chen, "A new buyer-seller watermark protocol without multiple watermarks insertion", Multimedia Tools Appl., vol. 76, pp. 9667-9679, 2017.
F. Frattolillo, "A buyer-friendly and mediated watermark protocol for web context", ACM Trans. Web, vol. 10, no. 2, p. 9, 2016.
A. Rial, M. Deng, T. Bianchi, A. Piva, and B. Preneel, "A provably secure anonymous buyer-seller watermark protocol", IEEE Trans. Inf. Forensics Security, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 920-931, 2010.
Q. Xia, E. Sifah, K. Asamoah, J. Gao, X. Du, and M. Guizani, "MeDShare: Trustless medical data sharing among cloud service providers via blockchain", IEEE Access, vol. 5, pp. 14757-14767, 2017.
L. Qiao, and K. Nahrstedt, "Watermarking schemes and protocols for protecting rightful ownership and customer’s rights", J. Vis. Commun. Image Represent., vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 194-210, 1998.
G. Zyskind, O. Nathan, and A. Pentland, "Enigma: Decentralized Computation Platform with Guaranteed Privacy", Comput. Sci., 2015.
J. Chio, K. Sakurai, and J. Park, "Does it need trusted third party? Design of buyer-seller watermark protocol without trusted third party", In International Conference on Applied Cryptography and Network Security, 2003pp. 265-279
J. Zhang, W. Kou, and K. Fan, "Secure buyer-seller watermark protocol", IEEE Proceedings on Information Security, vol. 153, no. 1, pp. 15-18,
R. Beck, J. Czepluch, N. Lollike, and S. Malone, "Blockchain-the gateway to trust-free cryptographic transactions", In Proceedings of the 24th European Conference on Information Systems, 2016pp. 1-14
M. Pilkington, "Blockchain technology: Principles and applications", Research Handbook on Digital Transformations, Technique Report, 2015.,
Smart Contracts, Available at:,
Factom whitepaper, Business processes secured by immutable audit trails on the blockchain. Available at:,
What is A Smart Contract?. Available at :,
F. Frattolillo, "A multiparty watermarking protocol for cloud environments", J. Inform. Secur. Applic., vol. 47, pp. 246-257, 2019.
P. Lee, M. Awad, and E. Leiss, "A practical, almost zero-knowledge watermark verification algorithm", IACSIT Int. J. Eng. Technol., vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 9-16, 2016.
M. Ghadi, L. Laouamer, and L. Nana, "A novel zero-watermarking approach of medical images based on Jacobian matrix model: a novel zero-watermarking approach of medical images", Secur. Commun. Netw., vol. 9, no. 18, pp. 5203-5218, 2016.
X. Kang, G. Lin, Y. Chen, F. Zhao, E. Zhang, and C. Jing, "Robust and secure zero-watermarking algorithm for color images based on majority voting pattern and hyper-chaotic encryption", Multimedia Tools Appl., 2019.
Z. Xia, X. Wang, L. Zhang, Z. Qin, X. Sun, and K. Ren, "A privacy-preserving and copy-deterrence content-based image retrieval scheme in cloud computing", IEEE Trans. Inf. Forensics Security, 2016..
Z. Zhou, Y. Wang, J. Wu, C. Yang, and X. Sun, “Effective and efficient global context verification for image copy detection”, IEEE Trans., Inf. Forensics Secur, 2016.
C. Song, J. Sang, and S. Sudirman, "A buyer-seller watermarking protocol for digital secondary market", Multimedia Tools Appl., vol. 77, no. 2, pp. 225-249, 2018.
C. Song, S. Sudirman, and M. Merabti, "A robust-adaptive dual image watermarking technique", J. Vis. Commun. Image Represent., vol. 23, pp. 549-568, 2012.
Z. Meng, T. Morizumi, S. Miyata, and H. Kinoshita, "Design scheme of copyright management system based on digital watermarking and blockchain", In 42nd IEEE International Conference on Computer Software & Applications, 2018pp. 359-364
A. Dorri, M. Steger, S.S. Kanhere, and R. Jurdak, "BlockChain: a distributed solution to automotive security and privacy", IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 55, no. 12, pp. 119-125, 2017.
R.M. Frey, P. Buhler, A. Gerdes, T. Hardjono, K.L. Fuchs, and A. Ilic, "The effect of a blockchain-supported, privacy-preserving system on disclosure of personal data", In IEEE 16th International Symposium on Network Computing and Applications (NCA), 2017pp. 1-5

Rights & Permissions Print Export Cite as
© 2022 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy