Exosomes are nano-sized vesicles secreted by nearly all cells and have received massive attention recently. In addition to their roles in pathophysiological processes and diagnostic evaluations, recently, several studies have applied exosomes to design novel therapeutic applications. Exosomes can be derived from a variety of cells and tissues and based on the source, they can carry different native contents such as DNAs, non-coding small RNAs, mRNAs, and proteins. They can also be engineered by adding desirable agents including specific biomolecules or drugs. Both forms can be therapeutically used for delivering their cargoes to the target cells and desirably alter their functions. The present study aimed to provide a comprehensive review of the various studies which applied exosomes as a therapeutic tool in the treatment of different types of diseases including cancer, cardiovascular, neurologic, psychiatric, liver, and kidney diseases.
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