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Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders - Drug Targets


ISSN (Print): 1871-5303
ISSN (Online): 2212-3873

General Review Article

Are Oxidative Stress and Inflammation Mediators of Bone Loss Due to Estrogen Deficiency? A Review of Current Evidence

Author(s): Nur-Vaizura Mohamad, Soelaiman Ima-Nirwana and Kok-Yong Chin*

Volume 20, Issue 9, 2020

Page: [1478 - 1487] Pages: 10

DOI: 10.2174/1871530320666200604160614

open access plus


Osteoporosis is one of the major health issues associated with menopause-related estrogen deficiency. Various reports suggest that the hormonal changes related to menopausal transition may lead to the derangement of redox homeostasis and ultimately oxidative stress. Estrogen deficiency and oxidative stress may enhance the expression of genes involved in inflammation. All these factors may contribute, in synergy, to the development of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Previous studies suggest that estrogen may act as an antioxidant to protect the bone against oxidative stress, and as an antiinflammatory agent in suppressing pro-inflammatory and pro-osteoclastic cytokines. Thus, the focus of the current review is to examine the relationship between estrogen deficiency, oxidative stress and inflammation, and the impacts of these phenomena on skeletal health in postmenopausal women.

Keywords: Inflammation, menopause, estrogen, osteoporosis, oxidative stress, review.

Graphical Abstract
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