Background: Studies showed that biogenic selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) have a number of pharmacological properties, such as antimicrobial ones.Objective: The present investigation assesses the efficacy of biogenic selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) as a new patent against latent toxoplasmosis in a mice model. Methods: Male BALB/c mice were orally treated with SeNPs at the doses of 2.5, 5, 10 mg/kg once a day for 14 days. On the 15th day, the mice were infected with the intraperitoneal inoculation of 20-25 tissue cysts from the Tehran strain of Toxoplasma gondii. The mean numbers of brain tissue cysts and the mRNA levels of TNF-α, IL-12, IL-10, IFN-γ, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in mice of each tested group were measured. Moreover, serum clinical chemistry factors in treated mice were examined to determine the safety of SeNPs. Results: The mean number of the brain tissue cysts was significantly (P<0.001) decreased in mice treated with SeNPs at doses 2.5 (n=37), 5 (n=11), and 10 mg/kg (n=3) based on a dose dependent manner compared with the control group (n=587). The mRNA levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-12, and iNO were significantly increased in mice treated with SeNPs at the doses 10 mg/kg compared with control subgroups (p<0.05). No significant variation (p>0.05) was observed in the clinical chemistry parameters among the mice in the control subgroups compared with groups treated with SeNPs. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed a new patent in the treatment of toxoplasmosis; so that taking the biogenic selenium nanoparticles in concentrations of 2.5-10 mg/kg for 2 weeks was able to prevent severe symptoms of the toxoplasmosis in a mice model. This indicated the prophylactic effects of SeNPs with no considerable toxicity against latent toxoplasmosis. However, more studies are required to elucidate the correct anti-Toxoplasma mechanisms of SeNPs.
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