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Current Medicinal Chemistry


ISSN (Print): 0929-8673
ISSN (Online): 1875-533X

Review Article

Natural Product Inhibitors of Cyclooxygenase (COX) Enzyme: A Review on Current Status and Future Perspectives

Author(s): Goutami G. Ambati and Sanjay M. Jachak*

Volume 28 , Issue 10 , 2021

Published on: 02 June, 2020

Page: [1877 - 1905] Pages: 29

DOI: 10.2174/0929867327666200602131100

Price: $65


Background: Several clinically used COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitor drugs were reported to possess severe side effects like GI ulcers and cardiovascular disturbances, respectively. Natural products being structurally diverse always attracted the attention of chemists/ medicinal chemists as a potential source of lead molecules in the drug discovery process. COX-2 inhibitory natural products also possess potential cancer chemopreventive property against various cancers including that of colon, breast and prostate.

Methods: Various in vitro, in vivo and in silico standardized methods were used to evaluate COX inhibition property of different secondary metabolites isolated from plant, microbial and marine origin.

Results: We had earlier reported a detailed account of natural product inhibitors of COX reported during 1995-2005, in 2006. In the proposed review, we report 158 natural product inhibitors of COX during 2006 to 2019 belonging to various secondary metabolite classes such as alkaloids, terpenoids, polyphenols as flavonoids, chromones, coumarins, lignans, anthraquinones, naphthalenes, curcuminoids, diarylheptanoids and miscellaneous compounds of plant and marine origin. Further Structure Activity Relationship (SAR) studies of possible leads are also included in the article.

Conclusion: COX inhibitors served as a potential source of lead molecules for the discovery and development of anti-inflammatory drugs. Compilation of natural product and semisynthetic inhibitors of COX may serve as valuable information to the researchers who are looking for possible lead molecules from a natural source to conduct further preclinical and clinical studies.

Keywords: Cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), natural product COX inhibitors, antiinflammatory activity, cancer, secondary metabolites.

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