Objective: Pioglitazone (PG) is used to control high blood sugar in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PG acts as a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonist. In addition to the insulin-sensitizing effect, PG possesses anti-inflammatory effect. In this study, the protective effect of PG was evaluated against DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation in healthy human lymphocytes.
Methods: The microtubes containing human whole blood were treated with PG at various concentrations (1-50 μM) for three hours. Then, the blood samples were irradiated with X-ray. Lymphocytes were cultured for determining the frequency of micronuclei as a genotoxicity biomarker in binucleated lymphocytes.
Results: The mean percentage of micronuclei was significantly increased in human lymphocytes when exposed to IR, while it was decreased in lymphocytes pre-treated with PG. The maximum reduction in the frequency of micronuclei in irradiated lymphocytes was observed at 5 μM of PG treatment (48% decrease).
Conclusion: The anti-inflammatory property suggested the mechanism action of PG for protecting human lymphocytes against genotoxicity induced by ionizing radiation.
Keywords: Anti-inflammatory, DNA damage, micronucleus test, pioglitazone, radiation biology, radioprotective.
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