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Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry


ISSN (Print): 1871-5206
ISSN (Online): 1875-5992

Review Article

RecQ Family Helicases in Replication Fork Remodeling and Repair: Opening New Avenues towards the Identification of Potential Targets for Cancer Chemotherapy

Author(s): Chetan K. Jain, Swagata Mukhopadhyay and Agneyo Ganguly*

Volume 20 , Issue 11 , 2020

Page: [1311 - 1326] Pages: 16

DOI: 10.2174/1871520620666200518082433

Price: $65


Replication fork reversal and restart has gained immense interest as a central response mechanism to replication stress following DNA damage. Although the exact mechanism of fork reversal has not been elucidated precisely, the involvement of diverse pathways and different factors has been demonstrated, which are central to this phenomenon. RecQ helicases known for their vital role in DNA repair and maintaining genome stability has recently been implicated in the restart of regressed replication forks. Through interaction with vital proteins like Poly (ADP) ribose polymerase 1 (PARP1), these helicases participate in the replication fork reversal and restart phenomenon. Most therapeutic agents used for cancer chemotherapy act by causing DNA damage in replicating cells and subsequent cell death. These DNA damages can be repaired by mechanisms involving fork reversal as the key phenomenon eventually reducing the efficacy of the therapeutic agent. Hence the factors contributing to this repair process can be good selective targets for developing more efficient chemotherapeutic agents. In this review, we have discussed in detail the role of various proteins in replication fork reversal and restart with special emphasis on RecQ helicases. Involvement of other proteins like PARP1, recombinase rad51, SWI/SNF complex has also been discussed. Since RecQ helicases play a central role in the DNA damage response following chemotherapeutic treatment, we propose that targeting these helicases can emerge as an alternative to available intervention strategies. We have also summarized the current research status of available RecQ inhibitors and siRNA based therapeutic approaches that targets RecQ helicases. In summary, our review gives an overview of the DNA damage responses involving replication fork reversal and provides new directions for the development of more efficient and sustainable chemotherapeutic approaches.

Keywords: Replication fork reversal, replication fork restart, RecQ helicases, DNA repair, chemotherapy, PARP1.

Graphical Abstract
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