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Current Diabetes Reviews


ISSN (Print): 1573-3998
ISSN (Online): 1875-6417

Research Article

High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency and Correlation with Cystatin-C and Other Cardiovascular and Renal Risk Biomarkers in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Complicated with Hypertension

Author(s): Mohammad J. Alkhatatbeh*, Sajedah A. Smadi, Khalid K. Abdul-Razzak and Nesreen A. Saadeh

Volume 17, Issue 1, 2021

Published on: 16 May, 2020

Page: [81 - 90] Pages: 10

DOI: 10.2174/1573399816666200516174352

Price: $65


Background: Vitamin D is increasingly investigated as having a role in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and its cardiovascular and renal complications.

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) and biomarkers of cardiovascular and renal complications, including cystatin-C.

Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 117 participants with T2DM that was not complicated with cardiovascular or renal diseases except hypertension. 25-OHD was measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay, while cystatin-C was measured by enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay. Other biomarkers, including lipids, creatinine, urea and glycemic measures, were determined by the routine biochemistry assays.

Results: The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 74.36%. There was no significant difference in cardiovascular and renal biomarkers, including glucose, HbA1c, lipids, urea, creatinine and cystatin-C between participants with adequate and deficient vitamin D (p-values>0.05). Participants with adequate vitamin D were older in age, more obese and having lower eGFR (p-values<0.05). 25-OHD was weakly correlated with age, duration of DM, urea, creatinine and inversely correlated with eGFR (rvalues< 0.32, p-values<0.05). Although creatinine and cystatin-C were directly correlated (r=0.42, pvalue< 0.001), cystatin-C and 25-OHD were not correlated (p-value>0.05). Hypertensive participants were more obese, having a longer duration of DM and higher urea and cystatin-C compared to nonhypertensive participants (p-values<0.05). Binary logistic regression analysis revealed that hypertension could be predicted from increased BMI.

Conclusion: 25-OHD was not found to be correlated with cardiovascular risk biomarkers, but it was correlated with renal biomarkers, including urea, creatinine and eGFR. Cystatin-C and 25-OHD were not observed to be correlated to each other, but both were correlated to renal function. Obesity was a significant predictor of hypertension.

Keywords: Cardiovascular risk, cystatin-C, 25-OHD, hypertension, renal risk, T2DM.

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