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Current Pharmaceutical Design

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 1381-6128
ISSN (Online): 1873-4286

Review Article (Mini-Review)

Novel Targets of Metformin in Cardioprotection: Beyond the Effects Mediated by AMPK

Author(s): Samir Bolívar*, Laura Noriega, Stefany Ortega, Estefanie Osorio, Wendy Rosales, Xilene Mendoza and Evelyn Mendoza-Torres*

Volume 27 , Issue 1 , 2021

Published on: 09 May, 2020

Page: [80 - 90] Pages: 11

DOI: 10.2174/1381612826666200509232610

Price: $65

Abstract

Ischemic heart disease is the main cause of death globally. In the heart, the ischemia/reperfusion injury gives rise to a complex cascade of molecular signals, called cardiac remodeling, which generates harmful consequences for the contractile function of the myocardium and consequently heart failure. Metformin is the drug of choice in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Clinical data suggest the direct effects of this drug on cardiac metabolism and studies in animal models showed that metformin activates the classical pathway of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), generating cardioprotective effects during cardiac remodeling, hypertrophy and fibrosis. Furthermore, new studies have emerged about other targets of metformin with a potential role in cardioprotection. This state of the art review shows the available scientific evidence of the cardioprotective potential of metformin and its possible effects beyond AMPK. Targeting of autophagy, mitochondrial function and miRNAs are also explored as cardioprotective approaches along with a therapeutic potential. Further advances related to the biological effects of metformin and cardioprotective approaches may provide new therapies to protect the heart and prevent cardiac remodeling and heart failure.

Keywords: Metformin, myocardial ischemia, cardiac remodeling, AMPK, heart failure, fibrosis.

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