Generic placeholder image

Current Neuropharmacology


ISSN (Print): 1570-159X
ISSN (Online): 1875-6190

Review Article

Emerging Evidence for Neuropsycho-Consequences of COVID-19

Author(s): Jingwen Li, Xi Long, Qing Zhang, Xi Fang, Fang Fang, Xuefei Lv, Dandan Zhang, Yu Sun, Na Li, Shaoping Hu, Zhicheng Lin* and Nian Xiong*

Volume 19, Issue 1, 2021

Published on: 06 May, 2020

Page: [92 - 96] Pages: 5

DOI: 10.2174/1570159X18666200507085335

Price: $65


The pandemic novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has become a global concern in which the respiratory system is not the only one involved. Previous researches have presented the common clinical manifestations including respiratory symptoms (i.e., fever and cough), fatigue and myalgia. However, there is limited evidence for neurological and psychological influences of SARS-CoV-2. In this review, we discuss the common neurological manifestations of COVID-19 including acute cerebrovascular disease (i.e., cerebral hemorrhage) and muscle ache. Possible viral transmission to the nervous system may occur via circulation, an upper nasal transcribrial route and/or conjunctival route. Moreover, we cannot ignore the psychological influence on the public, medical staff and confirmed patients. Dealing with public psychological barriers and performing psychological crisis intervention are an important part of public health interventions.

Keywords: Brain, indirect influence, neurological, SARS-COV-2, psychological, mental health, COVID-19, transmission.

« Previous
Graphical Abstract
Yao, X.H.; Li, T.Y.; He, Z.C.; Ping, Y.F.; Liu, H.W.; Yu, S.C.; Mou, H.M.; Wang, L.H.; Zhang, H.R.; Fu, W.J.; Luo, T.; Liu, F.; Chen, C.; Xiao, H.L.; Guo, H.T.; Lin, S.; Xiang, D.F.; Shi, Y.; Li, Q.R.; Huang, X.; Cui, Y.; Liu, X.Z.; Tang, W.; Pan, P.F.; Huang, X.Q.; Ding, Y.Q.; Bian, X.W. A pathological report of three COVID-19 cases by minimally invasive autopsies Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese J. Pathalogy, 2020, 49E9
Wang, T.; Du, Z.; Zhu, F.; Cao, Z.; An, Y.; Gao, Y.; Jiang, B. Comorbidities and multi-organ injuries in the treatment of COVID-19. Lancet, 2020, 395(10228)e52
[]] [PMID: 32171074]
Hoffmann, M.; Kleine-Weber, H.; Schroeder, S.; Krüger, N.; Herrler, T.; Erichsen, S.; Schiergens, T.S.; Herrler, G.; Wu, N.H.; Nitsche, A.; Müller, M.A.; Drosten, C.; Pöhlmann, S. SARS-CoV-2 cell entry depends on ace2 and tmprss2 and is blocked by a clinically proven protease inhibitor. Cell, 2020, 181(2), 271-280.e8.
[] [PMID: 32142651]
Xie, X.; Zhong, Z.; Zhao, W.; Zheng, C.; Wang, F.; Liu, J. Chest CT for typical 2019-nCoV pneumonia: Relationship to negative rt-pcr testing. Radiology, 2020, 296(2), E41-E45.
Mao, L.; Jin, H.; Wang, M.; Hu, Y.; Chen, S.; He, Q.; Chang, J.; Hong, C.; Zhou, Y.; Wang, D.; Miao, X.; Li, Y.; Hu, B. Neurologic manifestations of hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 in Wuhan. JAMA Neurol., 2020, 77(6), 683-690.
Li, Y.C.; Bai, W.Z.; Hashikawa, T. The neuroinvasive potential of SARS‐CoV2 may be at least partially responsible for the respiratory failure of COVID‐19 patients. J. Med. Virol., 2020, 92(6), 552-555.
[]] [PMID: 32246783]
The Lancet. COVID-19: fighting panic with information.(Editorial). Lancet, 2020, 395(10224), 537.
[] [PMID: 32087777]
Depoux, A.; Martin, S.; Karafillakis, E.; Preet, R.; Wilder-Smith, A.; Larson, H. The pandemic of social media panic travels faster than the COVID-19 outbreak. J. Travel Med., 2020, 27(3)
Guan, W.J.; Ni, Z.Y.; Hu, Y.; Liang, W.H.; Ou, C.Q.; He, J.X.; Liu, L.; Shan, H.; Lei, C.L.; Hui, D.S.C.; Du, B.; Li, L.J.; Zeng, G.; Yuen, K.Y.; Chen, R.C.; Tang, C.L.; Wang, T.; Chen, P.Y.; Xiang, J.; Li, S.Y.; Wang, J.L.; Liang, Z.J.; Peng, Y.X.; Wei, L.; Liu, Y.; Hu, Y.H.; Peng, P.; Wang, J.M.; Liu, J.Y.; Chen, Z.; Li, G.; Zheng, Z.J.; Qiu, S.Q.; Luo, J.; Ye, C.J.; Zhu, S.Y.; Zhong, N.S. China medical treatment expert group for Covid-19. Clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 in China. N. Engl. J. Med., 2020, 382(18), 1708-1720.
[] [PMID: 32109013]
Zhang, B.; Zhou, X.; Qiu, Y.; Song, Y.; Feng, F.; Feng, J.; Song, Q.; Jia, Q.; Wang, J. Clinical characteristics of 82 death cases with COVID-19. medRxiv preprint, 2020, 15(7), e0235458..
Huang, Y.; Yang, R.; Xu, Y.; Gong, P. Clinical characteristics of 36 non-survivors with COVID-19 in Wuhan. medRxiv preprint,. 2020.
Clinical strategies for prevention and treatment neurologist consensus editorial group, corona.c., 2019 clinical prevention and treatment of coronavirus disease (covid-19). Chin. J. Neurol., 2020, e001-e001.
Yang, X.; Yu, Y.; Xu, J.; Shu, H.; Xia, J.; Liu, H.; Wu, Y.; Zhang, L.; Yu, Z.; Fang, M.; Yu, T.; Wang, Y.; Pan, S.; Zou, X.; Yuan, S.; Shang, Y. Clinical course and outcomes of critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a single-centered, retrospective, observational study. Lancet Respir. Med., 2020, 8(5), 475-481.
[] [PMID: 32105632]
Xu, X.W.; Wu, X.X.; Jiang, X.G.; Xu, K.J.; Ying, L.J.; Ma, C.L.; Li, S.B.; Wang, H.Y.; Zhang, S.; Gao, H.N.; Sheng, J.F.; Cai, H.L.; Qiu, Y.Q.; Li, L.J. Clinical findings in a group of patients infected with the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-Cov-2) outside of Wuhan, China: retrospective case series. BMJ, 2020, 368, m606.
[] [PMID: 32075786]
Wang, D.; Hu, B.; Hu, C.; Zhu, F.; Liu, X.; Zhang, J.; Wang, B.; Xiang, H.; Cheng, Z.; Xiong, Y.; Zhao, Y.; Li, Y.; Wang, X.; Peng, Z. Clinical characteristics of 138 hospitalized patients with 2019 novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia in Wuhan. JAMA, 2020, 323(11), 1061-1069.
Huang, C.; Wang, Y.; Li, X.; Ren, L.; Zhao, J.; Hu, Y.; Zhang, L.; Fan, G.; Xu, J.; Gu, X.; Cheng, Z.; Yu, T.; Xia, J.; Wei, Y.; Wu, W.; Xie, X.; Yin, W.; Li, H.; Liu, M.; Xiao, Y.; Gao, H.; Guo, L.; Xie, J.; Wang, G.; Jiang, R.; Gao, Z.; Jin, Q.; Wang, J.; Cao, B. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan. Lancet, 2020, 395(10223), 497-506.
Chen, N.; Zhou, M.; Dong, X.; Qu, J.; Gong, F.; Han, Y.; Qiu, Y.; Wang, J.; Liu, Y.; Wei, Y.; Xia, J.; Yu, T.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, L. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. Lancet, 2020, 395(10223), 507-513.
[] [PMID: 32007143]
Chang, D.; Liu, M.G.; Wei, L.; Xie, L.X.; Zhu, G.F.; Cruz, C.S.; Sharm, L. Epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of novel coronavirus infections involving 13 patients outside wuhan. JAMA, 2020, 323(11), 1092-1093.
Wang, Z.; Chen, X.; Lu, Y.; Chen, F.; Zhang, W. Clinical characteristics and therapeutic procedure for four cases with 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia receiving combined Chinese and Western medicine treatment. Biosci. Trends, 2020, 14(1), 64-68.
[] [PMID: 32037389]
Liu, K.; Fang, Y.Y.; Deng, Y.; Liu, W.; Wang, M.F.; Ma, J.P.; Xiao, W.; Wang, Y.N.; Zhong, M.H.; Li, C.H.; Li, G.C.; Liu, H.G. Clinical characteristics of novel coronavirus cases in tertiary hospitals in Hubei Province. Chin. Med. J. (Engl.), 2020, 133(9), 1025-1031.
[] [PMID: 32044814]
Chung, M.; Bernheim, A.; Mei, X.; Zhang, N.; Huang, M.; Zeng, X.; Cui, J.; Xu, W.; Yang, Y.; Fayad, Z.A.; Jacobi, A.; Li, K.; Li, S.; Shan, H. CT imaging features of 2019 novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV). Radiology, 2020, 295(1), 202-207.
[] [PMID: 32017661]
Pan, F.; Ye, T.; Sun, P.; Gui, S.; Liang, B.; Li, L.; Zheng, D.; Wang, J.; Hesketh, R.L.; Yang, L.; Zheng, C. Time course of lung changes on chest ct during recovery from 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) Pneumonia. Radiology, 2020, 295(3), 715-721.
Song, F.; Shi, N.; Shan, F.; Zhang, Z.; Shen, J.; Lu, H.; Ling, Y.; Jiang, Y.; Shi, Y. Emerging 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) pneumonia. Radiology, 2020, 295(1), 210-217.
[] [PMID: 32027573]
Ren, L.L.; Wang, Y.M.; Wu, Z.Q.; Xiang, Z.C.; Guo, L.; Xu, T.; Jiang, Y.Z.; Xiong, Y.; Li, Y.J.; Li, X.W.; Li, H.; Fan, G.H.; Gu, X.Y.; Xiao, Y.; Gao, H.; Xu, J.Y.; Yang, F.; Wang, X.M.; Wu, C.; Chen, L.; Liu, Y.W.; Liu, B.; Yang, J.; Wang, X.R.; Dong, J.; Li, L.; Huang, C.L.; Zhao, J.P.; Hu, Y.; Cheng, Z.S.; Liu, L.L.; Qian, Z.H.; Qin, C.; Jin, Q.; Cao, B.; Wang, J.W. Identification of a novel coronavirus causing severe pneumonia in human: a descriptive study. Chin. Med. J. (Engl.), 2020, 133(9), 1015-1024.
[] [PMID: 32004165]
Baig, A.M. Khaleeq, A; Ali, U; Syeda, H. Evidence of the COVID-19 Virus targeting the CNS: Tissue distribution, host–virus iInteraction, and proposed neurotropic mechanisms. ACS Chem. Neurosci., 2020, 11(7), 995-998.
Lu, C.W.; Liu, X.F. Jia, Z.F. -nCoV transmission through the ocular surface must not be ignored. Lancet, 2019, 395(10224)e39
[PMID: 32035510]
Netland, J.; Meyerholz, D.K.; Moore, S.; Cassell, M.; Perlman, S. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection causes neuronal death in the absence of encephalitis in mice transgenic for human ACE2. J. Virol., 2008, 82(15), 7264-7275.
[] [PMID: 18495771]
AC. W.; YJ, P.; MA, T. A W, AT M, D V. Structure, function, and antigenicity of the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein. Cell, 2020, 181(2), 281-292.e6.
Yan, R.H.; Zhang, Y.Y.; Li, Y.N.; Xia, L.; Guo, Y.Y.; Zhou, Q. Structural basis for the recognition of the SARS-CoV-2 by full-length human ACE2. Science, N.Y. 2020, 367(6485), 1444-1448.
Wrapp, D.; Wang, N.; Corbett, K.S.; Goldsmith, J.A.; Hsieh, C.L.; Abiona, O.; Graham, B.S.; McLellan, J.S. Cryo-EM structure of the 2019-nCoV spike in the prefusion conformation. Science, 2020, 367(6483), 1260-1263.
[] [PMID: 32075877]
Li, K.; Wohlford-Lenane, C.; Perlman, S.; Zhao, J.; Jewell, A.K.; Reznikov, L.R.; Gibson-Corley, K.N.; Meyerholz, D.K.; McCray, P.B., Jr Middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus causes multiple organ damage and lethal disease in mice transgenic for human dipeptidyl peptidase 4. J. Infect. Dis., 2016, 213(5), 712-722.
[] [PMID: 26486634]
McCray, P.B., Jr; Pewe, L.; Wohlford-Lenane, C.; Hickey, M.; Manzel, L.; Shi, L.; Netland, J.; Jia, H.P.; Halabi, C.; Sigmund, C.D.; Meyerholz, D.K.; Kirby, P.; Look, D.C.; Perlman, S. Lethal infection of K18-hACE2 mice infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. J. Virol., 2007, 81(2), 813-821.
[] [PMID: 17079315]
Bao, Y.; Sun, Y.; Meng, S.; Shi, J.; Lu, L. 2019-nCoV epidemic: address mental health care to empower society. Lancet, 2020, 395(10224), e37-e38.
[] [PMID: 32043982]
Yang, Y.; Peng, F.; Wang, R.; Yange, M.; Guan, K.; Jiang, T.; Xu, G.; Sun, J.; Chang, C. The deadly coronaviruses: The 2003 SARS pandemic and the 2020 novel coronavirus epidemic in China. J. Autoimmun., 2020, 109102434
[]] [PMID: 32143990]
Xiao, C. A Novel Approach of Consultation on 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19)-related psychological and mental problems: structured letter therapy. Psychiatry Investig., 2020, 17(2), 175-176.
[] [PMID: 32093461]
Wang, C.; Pan, R.; Wan, X.; Tan, Y.; Xu, L.; Ho, C.S.; Ho, R.C. Immediate psychological responses and associated factors during the initial stage of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic among the general population in China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 2020, 17(5), 1729.
[] [PMID: 32155789]
Sabin-Farrell, R.; Turpin, G. Vicarious traumatization: implications for the mental health of health workers? Clin. Psychol. Rev., 2003, 23(3), 449-480.
[] [PMID: 12729680]
Li, Z.; Ge, J.; Yang, M.; Feng, J.; Qiao, M.; Jiang, R.; Bi, J.; Zhan, G.; Xu, X.; Wang, L.; Zhou, Q.; Zhou, C.; Pan, Y.; Liu, S.; Zhang, H.; Yang, J.; Zhu, B.; Hu, Y.; Hashimoto, K.; Jia, Y.; Wang, H.; Wang, R.; Liu, C.; Yang, C. Vicarious traumatization in the general public, members, and non-members of medical teams aiding in COVID-19 control. Brain Behav. Immun., 2020, 88, 916-919.
Duan, L.; Zhu, G. Psychological interventions for people affected by the COVID-19 epidemic. Lancet Psychiatry, 2020, 7(4), 300-302.
[] [PMID: 32085840]
Cheng, S.K.; Wong, C.W.; Tsang, J.; Wong, K.C. Psychological distress and negative appraisals in survivors of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Psychol. Med., 2004, 34(7), 1187-1195.
[] [PMID: 15697045]

Rights & Permissions Print Export Cite as
© 2022 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy