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Current Neuropharmacology

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 1570-159X
ISSN (Online): 1875-6190

Review Article

Management Perspective of Wilson’s Disease: Early Diagnosis and Individualized Therapy

Author(s): Xiang-Zhen Yuan, Ren-Min Yang and Xiao-Ping Wang*

Volume 19, Issue 4, 2021

Published on: 29 April, 2020

Page: [465 - 485] Pages: 21

DOI: 10.2174/1570159X18666200429233517

Price: $65

Abstract

Wilson’s disease (WD) is an inherited disease caused by mutations in ATP7B and is characterized by the pathological accumulation of copper in the liver and brain. Common clinical manifestations of WD include a wide range of liver disease and neurological symptoms. In some patients, psychiatric symptoms may be the only manifestation at the time of diagnosis. The clinical features of WD are highly variable and can mimic any disease of internal medicine. Therefore, for unexplained medical diseases, the possibility of WD should not be ignored. Early diagnosis and treatment can improve the prognosis of WD patients and reduce disability and early death. Gene sequencing is becoming a valuable method to diagnose WD, and if possible, all WD patients and their siblings should be genetically sequenced. Copper chelators including D-penicillamine, trientine, and dimercaptosuccinic acid can significantly improve the liver injury and symptoms of WD patients but may have a limited effect on neurological symptoms. Zinc salts may be more appropriate for the treatment of asymptomatic patients or for the maintenance treatment of symptomatic patients. High-quality clinical trials for the drug treatment of WD are still lacking, therefore, individualized treatment options for patients are recommended. Individualized treatment can be determined based on the clinical features of the WD patients, efficacy and adverse effects of the drugs, and the experience of the physician. Liver transplantation is the only effective method to save patients with acute liver failure or with severe liver disease who fail drug treatment.

Keywords: Wilson's disease, ceruloplasmin, copper homeostasis, genetics, diagnosis, management.

Graphical Abstract
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