Background: Chronic consumption of alcohol has an adverse effect on the skeletal system, which may lead to osteoporosis, delayed fracture healing and osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Currently, the treatment is limited, therefore, there is an urgent need to determine the underline mechanism and develop a new treatment. It is well-known that normal bone remodeling relies on the balance between osteoclast-mediated bone resorption and - mediated bone formation. Various factors can destroy the balance, including the dysfunction of the immune system. In this review, we summarized the relevant research in the alcoholic osteopenia with a focus on the abnormal osteoimmunology signals. We provided a new theoretical basis for the prevention and treatment of the alcoholic bone.
Methods: We searched PubMed for publications from 1 January 1980 to 1 February 2020 to identify relevant and recent literature, summarizing evaluation and the prospect of alcoholic osteopenia. Detailed search terms were ‘alcohol’, ‘alcoholic osteoporosis’, ‘alcoholic osteopenia’ ‘immune’, ‘osteoimmunology’, ‘bone remodeling’, ‘osteoporosis treatment’ and ‘osteoporosis therapy’.
Results: A total of 135 papers are included in the review. About 60 papers described the mechanisms of alcohol involved in bone remodeling. Some papers were focused on the pathogenesis of alcohol on bone through osteoimmune mechanisms.
Conclusion: There is a complex network of signals between alcohol and bone remodeling and intercellular communication of osteoimmune may be a potential mechanism for alcoholic bone. Studying the osteoimmune mechanism is critical for drug development specific to the alcoholic bone disorder.