Background: There are a number of protocols for Ullmann coupling–type S-arylation reactions, many of them suffer from the use of homogenous and often corrosive catalyst, cumbersome workup procedures, and long reaction times. Besides, many of these reagents are expensive and non-recoverable, leading to the generation of a large amount of toxic waste particularly when large-scale applications are considered.
Objective: The aim of this study was to prepare a new Pd catalyst bonded on the surface of zeolite as a heterogeneous catalyst.
Methods: A heterogeneous palladium catalyst has been prepared by immobilizing Pd ions on Clinoptilolite. This novel developed heterogeneous catalyst was thoroughly examined for Ullmann coupling–type S-arylation reaction using different bases, solvents and 0.003 mg of the catalyst. The structural and morphological characterizations of the catalyst were carried out using XRD, TGA, BET and TEM techniques.
Results: Highly efficient heterogeneous palladium catalyst has been developed by immobilizing Pd ions on Clinoptilolite, as one of the most abundant naturally occurring zeolites for Ullmann Sarylation. By using this method, we provide an efficient way to a wide variety of substituted thiolic compounds. Moreover, the catalyst is easily recovered using simple filtration and reused for 5 consecutive runs.
Conclusion: In this effort, we developed a new Pd catalyst bonded on the surface of zeolite as a substrate to prepare the heterogeneous catalyst. We demonstrate that this novel catalyst offers reliable and convincing data that may offer a valuable application in further developing the science and technology of Ullmann reaction protocols and allied industries. Additionally, the catalyst was reusable and kept its high activities over a number of cycles.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm000503f] [PMID: 11312920]
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm030477w] [PMID: 15084119]
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja901105a] [PMID: 19469566]