Five metabolites were isolated by chromatographic methods from the fruit stems of P. vera and their chemical structures were characterized as masticadienonic acid (1), tirucallol (2), masticadienolic acid (3), pistachionic acid (4) and inulobiose (5) via FT-IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, 1D-NMR and 2D-NMR. Pistachionic acid (4), a new shikimic acid derivative, was isolated from the ethanol extract for the first time. The hexane, chloroform, ethanol extracts and pure metabolites exhibited antidiabetic properties by inhibiting α- glycosidase and α-amylase enzymes at different rates. Their inhibitory effects against the α- glycosidase enzyme were also higher than that of the acarbose (IC50=10.30 mg/mL). Masticadienolic acid (3) (IC50=0.03 mg/mL), masticadienonic acid (1) (IC50=0.13 mg/mL) and hexane extract (IC50=0.09 mg/mL) with the lowest IC50 values were found to be most active substances. Nevertheless, the inhibitory effect of acarbose against the α-amylase enzyme was determined to be higher than the inhibition effects of the extracts and pure metabolites. According to the IC50 values, the best inhibitors against the α-amylase were ethanol extract (IC50=5.17 mg/mL), pistachionic acid (4) (IC50=7.35 mg/mL), tirucallol (2) (IC50=7.58 mg/mL) and masticadienolic acid (3) (IC50=8.22 mg/mL), respectively among the applications. In addition, anticholinesterase properties of the extracts and pure metabolites were investigated by testing the inhibitory properties against acetylcholine esterase (AChE) and butrylcholine esterase (BChE) enzymes activities. The results showed that the anticholinesterase properties of all extracts and pure metabolites were weaker than those of the commercial cholinesterase inhibitors, neostigmine and galantamine, and all applications reduced the activity of these enzymes at very high concentrations.
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