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Medicinal Chemistry

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 1573-4064
ISSN (Online): 1875-6638

Review Article

Current Insights of Inhibitors of p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase in Inflammation

Author(s): Archana Awasthi, Mantripragada Bhagavan Raju and Md. Azizur Rahman*

Volume 17, Issue 6, 2021

Published on: 27 February, 2020

Page: [555 - 575] Pages: 21

DOI: 10.2174/1573406416666200227122849

Price: $65

Abstract

Background: The inflammatory process is one of the mechanisms by which our body upholds us from pathogens such as parasites, bacteria, viruses, and other harmful microorganisms. Inflammatory stimuli activate many intracellular signaling pathways such as the nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB) pathway and three mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, which are mediated through extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38. The p38 has evolved as an enticing target in treating many persistent inflammatory diseases. Hence, designing novel p38 inhibitors targeting MAPK pathways has acquired significance.

Objective: Peruse to identify the lead target to discover novel p38MAPK inhibitors with different scaffolds having improved selectivity over the prototype drugs.

Methods: Structure and the binding sites of p38MAPK were focused. Various scaffolds designed for inhibition and the molecules which have entered the clinical trials are discussed.

Results: This review aspires to present the available information on the structure and the 3D binding sites of p38MAPK, various scaffolds designed for imidazole, urea, benzamide, azoles, quinoxaline, chromone, ketone as a potent p38MAPK inhibitors and their SAR studies and the molecules which have entered the clinical trials.

Conclusion: The development of successful selective p38MAPK inhibitors in inflammatory diseases is in progress despite all challenges. It was speculated that p38MAPK also plays an important role in treating diseases such as neuroinflammation, arterial inflammation, vascular inflammation, cancer and so on, which are posing the world with treatment challenges. In this review, clinical trials of drugs are discussed related to inflammatory and its related diseases. Research is in progress to design and develop novel p38MAPK inhibitors with minimal side effects.

Keywords: Inflammation, p38MAPK, P38MAPK signalling pathway, p38MAPK inhibitors, 3D binding sites of p38MAPK, ATP binding modes, p38MAPK, SAR of p38MAPK inhibitors, inhibitors in clinical trials.

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