Generic placeholder image

Current Nutrition & Food Science


ISSN (Print): 1573-4013
ISSN (Online): 2212-3881

Research Article

Effects of Cooking Processes on Breath Hydrogen and Colonic Fermentation of Soybean

Author(s): Naoya Okumura, Naoya Jinno, Kentaro Taniguchi, Kenichi Tanabe, Sadako Nakamura, Takaharu Kondo and Akito Shimouchi*

Volume 16, Issue 4, 2020

Page: [488 - 493] Pages: 6

DOI: 10.2174/1573401316666200226104601

open access plus


Background: Soybean is rich in dietary fibers; consequently, soybean ingestion considerably increases the breath level of hydrogen molecules via anaerobic colonic fermentation. However, the influence of cooking methods on this effect, which can affect the overall health benefits of soybean, remains unknown.

Objectives: The aim is to examine whether different methods of cooking soybean affect the colonic fermentation process.

Methods: Nine healthy adult volunteers participated in the study; they ingested either roasted soybean flour (kinako) or well-boiled soybean (BS). Differences in their breath components were compared. Both test meals were cooked using 80 g of soybeans per individual. After a 12 h fast, the participants ate the test meals, and their breath hydrogen level was analyzed every 1 h for 9 h by using a gas chromatograph with a semiconductor detector. In addition, particle size distribution and soluble/ insoluble fibers in the feces were examined.

Results: The oro-cecal transit time did not significantly differ between individuals who ingested kinako and BS. However, the area under the curve between 7 and 9 h after the ingestion of BS was significantly increased compared with that after the ingestion of kinako. The nutritional analysis indicated that the content of both soluble and insoluble fibers in BS was higher than that in kinako. In addition, the levels of unfermented fragments and soluble/insoluble fibers in the feces were increased after the ingestion of kinako compared with those after the ingestion of kinako.

Conclusion: Cooking methods alter the composition of non-digestible fibers in soybean, and this can result in the lack of fermentative particles in the feces, thereby causing alterations in the breath level of hydrogen via colonic fermentation.

Keywords: Boiled soybean, breath hydrogen, colonic fermentation, cooking process, kinako, soybean fiber.

Graphical Abstract
McNamara EA, Levitt MD, Slavin JL. Breath hydrogen and methane: poor indicators of apparent digestion of soy fiber. Am J Clin Nutr 1986; 43(6): 898-902.
[] [PMID: 3012991]
Amann A, Costello BdeL, Miekisch W, et al. The human volatilome: volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath, skin emanations, urine, feces and saliva. J Breath Res 2014; 8(3): 034001
[] [PMID: 24946087]
de Lacy Costello B, Amann A, Al-Kateb H, et al. A review of the volatiles from the healthy human body. J Breath Res 2014; 8(1): 014001
[] [PMID: 24421258]
Levitt MD, Donaldson RM. Use of respiratory hydrogen (H2) excretion to detect carbohydrate malabsorption. J Lab Clin Med 1970; 75(6): 937-45.
[PMID: 5421079]
Simrén M, Stotzer PO. Use and abuse of hydrogen breath tests. Gut 2006; 55(3): 297-303.
[] [PMID: 16474100]
Suarez FL, Springfield J, Furne JK, Lohrmann TT, Kerr PS, Levitt MD. Gas production in human ingesting a soybean flour derived from beans naturally low in oligosaccharides. Am J Clin Nutr 1999; 69(1): 135-9.
[] [PMID: 9925135]
Ohta S. Molecular hydrogen as a novel antioxidant: overview of the advantages of hydrogen for medical applications. Methods Enzymol 2015; 555: 289-317.
[] [PMID: 25747486]
Ge L, Yang M, Yang NN, Yin XX, Song WG. Molecular hydrogen: a preventive and therapeutic medical gas for various diseases. Oncotarget 2017; 8(60): 102653-73.
[] [PMID: 29254278]
Ostojic SM. Molecular hydrogen: An inert gas turns clinically effective. Ann Med 2015; 47(4): 301-4.
[] [PMID: 25936365]
Nishimaki K, Asada T, Ohsawa I, et al. Effects of molecular hydrogen assessed by an animal model and a randomized clinical study on mild cognitive impairment. Curr Alzheimer Res 2018; 15(5): 482-92.
[] [PMID: 29110615]
Sakai T, Sato B, Hara K, et al. Consumption of water containing over 3.5 mg of dissolved hydrogen could improve vascular endothelial function. Vasc Health Risk Manag 2014; 10: 591-7.
[PMID: 25378931]
Ono H, Nishijima Y, Ohta S, et al. Hydrogen gas inhalation treatment in acute cerebral infarction: a randomized controlled clinical study on safety and neuroprotection. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2017; 26(11): 2587-94.
[] [PMID: 28669654]
Xia C, Liu W, Zeng D, Zhu L, Sun X, Sun X. Effect of hydrogen-rich water on oxidative stress, liver function, and viral load in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Clin Transl Sci 2013; 6(5): 372-5.
[] [PMID: 24127924]
Kang KM, Kang YN, Choi IB, et al. Effects of drinking hydrogen-rich water on the quality of life of patients treated with radiotherapy for liver tumors. Med Gas Res 2011; 1(1): 11.
[] [PMID: 22146004]
Hirayama M, Ito M, Minato T, Yoritaka A, LeBaron TW, Ohno K. Inhalation of hydrogen gas elevates urinary 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanine in Parkinson’s disease. Med Gas Res 2019; 8(4): 144-9.
[PMID: 30713666]
Igarashi T, Ohsawa I, Kobayashi M, et al. Effects of hydrogen in prevention of corneal endothelial damage during phacoemulsification: a prospective randomized clinical trial. Am J Ophthalmol 2019; 207: 10-7.
[] [PMID: 31077667]
Nishimura N, Tanabe H, Sasaki Y, et al. Pectin and high-amylose maize starch increase caecal hydrogen production and relieve hepatic ischaemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Br J Nutr 2012; 107(4): 485-92.
[] [PMID: 21762543]
Suzuki Y, Sano M, Hayashida K, Ohsawa I, Ohta S, Fukuda K. Are the effects of alpha-glucosidase inhibitors on cardiovascular events related to elevated levels of hydrogen gas in the gastrointestinal tract? FEBS Lett 2009; 583(13): 2157-9.
[] [PMID: 19505462]
Ohta K, Terai H, Kimura I, et al. Simultaneous determination of hydrogen, methane, and carbon monoxide in water by gas chromatography with a semiconductor detector. Anal Chem 1999; 71: 2697-9.
Kasai N, Murata A, Inui H, Sakamoto T, Kahn RI. Enzymatic high digestion of soybean milk residue (okara). J Agric Food Chem 2004; 52(18): 5709-16.
[] [PMID: 15373413]
Lee YJ, Yoon WB. Flow behavior and hopper design for black soybean powders by particle size. J Food Eng 2015; 144: 10-9.
Schmidt AD, Strasburger J. Die faeces des menschen im normalen und krankhaften zustande mit besonderer berücksichtigung der klinischen untersuchungsmethoden. Berlin: August Hirschwal 1905.
Lynch R. Etude des Fèces Normales. Buenos Aires: Argentina Médica 1904.
Official Method AOAC. 99142 ‘Insoluble Dietary Fiber in Foods and Food Products, Enzymatic-Gravimetric Methods, Phosphate Buffer’ in Official Methods of Analysis. 16th ed. Arlington, VA: AOAC International 1995.
Official Method AOAC. 99312 ‘Soluble Dietary Fiber in Foods and Food Products, Enzymatic-Gravimetric Methods, Phosphate Buffer’ in Official Methods of Analysis. 16th ed. Arlington, VA: AOAC International 1995.
Veena A, Urooj A, Puttaraj S. Effect of processing on the composition of dietary fibre and starch in some legumes. Food/Nahrung 1995; 39(2): 132-8.
Sharma D, Gupta R, Joshi I. Nutrient analysis of raw and processed soybean and development of value added soybean noodle. Invent J 2014; 1: 1-5.
Han SH, Lee SW, Rhee C. Effect of heat treatment of digestion-resistant fraction from soybean on retarding of bile acid transport in vitro. Nutr Res Pract 2009; 3(2): 149-55.
Li S, Chen G, Qiang S, et al. Intensifying soluble dietary fiber production and properties of soybean curd residue via autoclaving treatment. Bioresour Technol Rep 2019; 7: 100203

© 2022 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy