Background: People with migraine experience cognitive decline more often than healthy controls, resulting in a significant functional impact. Early identifying influencing factors that contribute to cognitive decline in migraineurs is crucial for timely intervention. Although migraine may onset early in childhood and early onset migraine is related to significant disability, there is no research investigating the association between the age of migraine onset and migraineurs’ cognitive decline. Therefore we aim to explore possible factors that correlate to the cognitive function of migraineurs, especially focus on age of migraine onset.
Methods: 531 patients with migraine were included. Data on demographics and headache-related characteristics were collected and evaluated using face-to-face interviews and questionnaires. We used the Montreal Cognitive Assessment scale to assess cognitive function. In addition, we analyzed independent correlations between cognitive decline and the age of migraine onset in patients with migraine. And all patients completed the Headache Impact Test-6 to evaluate their quality of life.
Results: Migraineurs with cognitive decline showed significant differences from those without in age (OR=1.26, P<0.0001), years of education (OR=0.89, P=0.0182), the intensity of headache (OR=1.03, P=0.0217), age of onset (OR=0.92, P<0.0001) and anxiety scores (OR=1.09, P=0.0235). Furthermore, there was no interaction in the age of onset between subgroups. Multivariate linear regression analyses of HIT-6 scores showed that the intensity of headache (β=0.18, P<0.0001) and depression scores (β=0.26, P=0.0009) had independent effects on decreased quality of life.
Conclusion: Our findings suggest that younger age of migraine onset is independently related to migraineurs’ cognitive decline, and migraine accompanying anxiety symptoms significantly related to decreased quality of life in migraineurs.
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