Generic placeholder image

Recent Patents on Inflammation & Allergy Drug Discovery


ISSN (Print): 1872-213X
ISSN (Online): 2212-2710

Review Article

Acute Myocarditis in Children: An Overview of Treatment and Recent Patents

Author(s): Ronald C.M. Fung, Kam L. Hon* and Alexander K.C. Leung

Volume 14, Issue 2, 2020

Page: [106 - 116] Pages: 11

DOI: 10.2174/1872213X14666200204103714

Price: $65


Background: Pediatric myocarditis is rare but challenging. This overview summarized the current knowledge and recent patents on childhood myocarditis.

Methods: Clinical queries and keywords of “myocarditis” and “childhood” were used as search engine.

Results: Viral infections are the most common causes of acute myocarditis. Affected children often have a prodrome of fever, malaise, and myalgia. Clinical manifestations of acute myocarditis in children can be nonspecific. Some children may present with easy fatigability, poor appetite, vomiting, abdominal pain, exercise intolerance, respiratory distress/tachypnea, dyspnea at rest, orthopnea, chronic cough with wheezing, chest pain, unexplained tachycardia, hypotension, syncope, and hepatomegaly. Supraventricular arrhythmias, ventricular arrhythmias, and heart block may be present. A subset of patients have fulminant myocarditis and present with cardiovascular collapse, which may progress to severe cardiogenic shock, and even death. A high index of suspicion is crucial to its diagnosis and timely management. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is important in aiding clinical diagnosis while, endomyocardial biopsy remains the gold standard. The treatment consists of supportive therapy, ranging from supplemental oxygen and fluid restriction to mechanical circulatory support. Angiotensinconverting enzyme inhibitors, angio-tensin II receptor blockers, β-blockers, and aldosterone antagonists might be used for the treatment of heart failure while, immunosuppression treatments remain controversial. There are a few recent patents targeting prevention or treatment of viral myocarditis, including an immunogenic composition comprising a PCV-2 antigen, glutathione-S-transferase P1, neuregulins, NF-[kappa] B inhibitor, a pharmaceutical composition which contains 2-amino-2- (2- (4-octyl phenyl) - ethyl) propane 1,3-diol, a composition containing pycnojenol, Chinese herbal concoctions, and a Korean oral rapamycin. Evidence of their efficacy is still lacking.

Conclusion: This article reviews the current literature regarding etiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and management of acute myocarditis in children.

Keywords: Arrhythmia, chest pain, endomyocardial biopsy, heart failure, respiratory distress, viral.

Next »
Caforio ALP, Pankuweit S, Arbustini E, et al. European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Myocardial and Pericardial Diseases. Current state of knowledge on aetiology, diagnosis, management, and therapy of myocarditis: a position statement of the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Myocardial and Pericardial Diseases. Eur Heart J 2013; 34(33): 2636-48.
[ ] [PMID: 23824828]
Kindermann I, Barth C, Mahfoud F, et al. Update on myocarditis. J Am Coll Cardiol 2012; 59(9): 779-92.
[ ] [PMID: 22361396]
May LJ, Patton DJ, Fruitman DS. The evolving approach to paediatric myocarditis: A review of the current literature. Cardiol Young 2011; 21(3): 241-51.
[ ] [PMID: 21272427]
Nordin S, Kozor R, Bulluck H, et al. Cardiac fabry disease with late gadolinium enhancement is a chronic inflammatory cardiomyopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol 2016; 68(15): 1707-8.
[ ] [PMID: 27712787]
Richardson P, McKenna W, Bristow M, et al. Report of the 1995 World Health Organization/International Society and Federation of Cardiology Task Force on the Definition and Classification of cardiomyopathies. Circulation 1996; 93(5): 841-2.
[ ] [PMID: 8598070]
Cooper LT, Baughman KL, Feldman AM, et al. American Heart Association; American College of Cardiology; European Society of Cardiology. The role of endomyocardial biopsy in the management of cardiovascular disease: A scientific statement from the American Heart Association, the American College of Cardiology, and the European Society of Cardiology. Circulation 2007; 116(19): 2216-33.
[ ] [PMID: 17959655]
Canter CE, Simpson KE. Diagnosis and treatment of myocarditis in children in the current era. Circulation 2014; 129(1): 115-28.
[ ] [PMID: 24396015]
Leung AK, Hon KL, Leong KF, Sergi CM. Measles: A disease often forgotten but not gone. Hong Kong Med J 2018; 24(5): 512-20.
[ ] [PMID: 30245481]
Allan C, Fulton D. Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of myocarditis in children. UpTo Date 2019.
Leung TN, Hon KL, Leung AK, Group A, Group A. Streptococcus disease in Hong Kong children: An overview. Hong Kong Med J 2018; 24(6): 593-601.
[ ] [PMID: 30416105]
Feldman AM, McNamara D. Myocarditis. N Engl J Med 2000; 343(19): 1388-98.
[ ] [PMID: 11070105]
Baughman KL. Diagnosis of myocarditis: Death of Dallas criteria. Circulation 2006; 113(4): 593-5.
[ ] [PMID: 16449736]
Caforio ALP, Calabrese F, Angelini A, et al. A prospective study of biopsy-proven myocarditis: prognostic relevance of clinical and aetiopathogenetic features at diagnosis. Eur Heart J 2007; 28(11): 1326-33.
[ ] [PMID: 17493945]
Nugent AW, Daubeney PEF, Chondros P, et al. National Australian Childhood Cardiomyopathy Study. The epidemiology of childhood cardiomyopathy in Australia. N Engl J Med 2003; 348(17): 1639-46.
[ ] [PMID: 12711738]
Lipshultz SE, Sleeper LA, Towbin JA, et al. The incidence of pediatric cardiomyopathy in two regions of the United States. N Engl J Med 2003; 348(17): 1647-55.
[ ] [PMID: 12711739]
Arola A, Pikkarainen E, Sipilä JO, Pykäri J, Rautava P, Kytö V. Occurrence and features of childhood myocarditis: A nationwide study in Finland. J Am Heart Assoc 2017; 6(11)e005306
[ ] [PMID: 29151030]
Wu MH, Wu ET, Wang CC, et al. Contemporary postnatal incidence of acquiring acute myocarditis by age 15 years and the outcomes from a nationwide birth cohort. Pediatr Crit Care Med 2017; 18(12): 1153-8.
[ ] [PMID: 29068909]
Drory Y, Turetz Y, Hiss Y, et al. Sudden unexpected death in persons less than 40 years of age. Am J Cardiol 1991; 68(13): 1388-92.
[ ] [PMID: 1951130]
Aretz HT, Billingham ME, Edwards WD, et al. Myocarditis. A histopathologic definition and classification. Am J Cardiovasc Pathol 1987; 1(1): 3-14.
Yajima T, Knowlton KU. Viral myocarditis: From the perspective of the virus. Circulation 2009; 119(19): 2615-4.
Esfandiarei M, McManus BM. Molecular biology and pathogenesis of viral myocarditis. Annu Rev Pathol 2008; 3(1): 127-55.
Liu PP, Mason JW. Advances in the understanding of myocarditis. Circulation 2001; 104(9): 1076-82.
Bergelson JM, Cunningham JA, Droguett G, et al. Isolation of a common receptor for Coxsackie B viruses and adenoviruses 2 and 5. Science 1997; 275(5304): 1320-3.
Padalko E, Nuyens D, DePalma A, et al. The interferon inducer ampligen [poly(I)-poly(C12U)] markedly protects mice against coxsackie B3 virus-induced myocarditis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2004; 48(1): 267-74.
Deonarain R, Cerullo D, Fuse K, Liu PP, Fish EN. Protective role for interferon-beta in coxsackievirus B3 infection. Circulation 2004; 110(23): 3540.
Matsumori A, Tomioka N, Kawai C. Protective effect of recombinant alpha interferon on coxsackievirus B3 myocarditis in mice. Am Heart J 1988; 115(6): 1229-32.
Wessely R, Klingel K, Knowlton KU, Kandolf R. cardioselective infection with coxsackievirus B3 requires intact type i interferon signaling. Circulation 2001; 103(5): 756-61.
Bachmaier K, Pummerer C, Kozieradzki I, et al. Low-molecular-weight tumor necrosis factor receptor p55 controls induction of autoimmune heart disease. Circulation 1997; 95(3): 655-1.
Huber SA, Sartini D. Roles of Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and the p55 TNF receptor in CD1d induction and coxsackievirus B3-induced myocarditis. J Virol 2005; 79(5): 2659-65.
Kim J-M, Lim B-K. TNFR-Fc fusion protein expressed by in vivo electroporation improves survival rates and myocardial injury in coxsackievirus induced murine myocarditis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2006; 344(3): 765-1.
Lane JR, Neumann DA, Lafond Walker A, et al. Interleukin 1 or tumor necrosis factor can promote Coxsackie B3-induced myocarditis in resistant B10. A mice. J Exp Med 1992; 175(4): 1123-9.
Lane JR, Neumann DA, Lafond Walker A, et al. Role of IL-1 and tumor necrosis factor in coxsackie virus-induced autoimmune myocarditis. J Immunol 1993; 151(3): 1682-90.
Lim B-K, Choe S-C, Shin J-O, et al. Local expression of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist by plasmid DNA improves mortality and decreases myocardial inflammation in experimental coxsackieviral myocarditis. Circulation 2002; 105(11): 1278-81.
Caforio ALP, Angelini A, Blank M, et al. Passive transfer of affinity-purified Anti-Heart Autoantibodies (AHA) from sera of patients with myocarditis induces experimental myocarditis in mice. Int J Cardiol 2015; 179: 166-77.
Martinez NE, Sato F, Kawai E, Omura S, Chervenak RP, Tsunoda I. I. Regulatory T cells and Th17 cells in viral infections: Implications for multiple sclerosis and myocarditis. Future Virol 2012; 7-608(6): 593-608.
Olinde M, O’Connell MDJB. Inflammatory heart disease: Pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and treatment of myocarditis. Annu Rev Med 1994; 45(1): 481-90.
Dec GW, Palacios IF, Fallon JT, et al. Active myocarditis in the spectrum of acute dilated cardiomyopathies. N Engl J Med 1985; 312(14): 885-90.
O’Connell JB, Mason JW. Diagnosing and treating active myocarditis. West J Med 1989; 150(4): 431-5.
Ammirati E, Cipriani M, Moro C, et al. Clinical presentation and outcome in a contemporary cohort of patients with acute myocarditis. Circulation 2018; 138(11): 1088-99.
Lieberman EB, Hutchins GM, Herskowitz A, Rose NR, Baughman KL. Clinicopathologic description of myocarditis. J Am Coll Cardiol 1991; 18(7): 1617-26.
Angelini A, Calzolari V, Calabrese F, et al. Myocarditis mimicking acute myocardial infarction: Role of endomyocardial biopsy in the differential diagnosis. Heart 2000; 84(3): 245-50.
Sarda L, Colin P, Boccara F, et al. Myocarditis in patients with clinical presentation of myocardial infarction and normal coronary angiograms. J Am Coll Cardiol 2001; 37(3): 786-92.
Miklozek CL, Crumpacker CS, Royal HD, Come PC, Sullivan JL, Abelmann WH. Myocarditis presenting as acute myocardial infarction. Am Heart J 1988; 115(4): 768.
Karjalainen J, Heikkilä J. Incidence of three presentations of acute myocarditis in young men in military service. A 20-year experience. Eur Heart J 1999; 20(15): 1120-5.
Bonadio WA, Losek JD. Infants with myocarditis presenting with severe respiratory distress and shock. Pediatr Emerg Care 1987; 3(2): 110-3.
Press S, Lipkind RS. Acute myocarditis in infants. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 1990; 29(2): 73-6.
Butts RJ, Boyle GJ, Deshpande SR, et al. Characteristics of clinically diagnosed pediatric myocarditis in a contemporary multi-center cohort. Pediatr Cardiol 2017; 38(6): 1175-82.
Morgera T, DiLenarda A, Dreas L, et al. Electrocardiography of myocarditis revisited: Clinical and prognostic significance of electrocardiographic changes. Am Heart J 1992; 124(2): 455-67.
Pauschinger M, Noutsias M, Lassner D, Schultheiss H-P, Kuehl U. Inflammation, ECG changes and pericardial effusion: Whom to biopsy in suspected myocarditis? Clin Res Cardiol 2006; 95(11): 569-83.
Ukena C, Mahfoud F, Kindermann I, Kandolf R, Kindermann M, Böhm M. Prognostic electrocardiographic parameters in patients with suspected myocarditis. Eur J Heart Fail 2011; 13(4): 398-405.
Aquaro GD, Perfetti M, Camastra G, et al. Cardiac MR with late gadolinium enhancement in acute myocarditis with preserved systolic function: ITAMY study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2017; 70(16): 1977-87.
Brambatti M, Matassini MV, Adler ED, Klingel K, Camici PG, Ammirati E. Eosinophilic Myocarditis: Characteristics, Treatment, and Outcomes. J Am Coll Cardiol 2017; 70(19): 2363-75.
Puleo PR, Guadagno PA, Roberts R, et al. Early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction based on assay for subforms of creatine kinase-MB. Circulation 1990; 82(3): 759-64.
Puleo PR, Meyer D, Wathen C, Tawa CB, Wheeler S, Hamburg RJ, et al. Use of a rapid assay of subforms of creatine kinase MB to diagnose or rule out acute myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 1994; 331(9): 561-6.
Franz WM, Remppis A, Kandolf R, Kübler W, Katus HA. Serum troponin T: Diagnostic marker for acute myocarditis. Clin Chem 1996; 42(2): 340-1.
Bozkurt B, Colvin M, Cook J, et al. Current diagnostic and treatment strategies for specific dilated cardiomyopathies: A scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation 2016; 134(23): e579-646.
Al-Biltagi M, Issa M, Hagar HA, Abdel-Hafez M, Aziz NA. Circulating cardiac troponins levels and cardiac dysfunction in children with acute and fulminant viral myocarditis. Acta Paediatr 2010; 99(10): 1510-6.
Nasser N, Perles Z, Rein AJJT, Nir A. NT-proBNP as a marker for persistent cardiac disease in children with history of dilated cardiomyopathy and myocarditis. Pediatr Cardiol 2006; 27(1): 87-90.
Nir A. Bar OzB, Perles Z. N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide: Reference plasma levels from birth to adolescence. Elevated levels at birth and in infants and children with heart diseases. Acta Paediatr 2004; 93(5): 603-7.
Freedman SB, Haladyn JK, Floh A, Kirsh JA, Taylor G, Thull-Freedman J. Pediatric myocarditis: emergency department clinical findings and diagnostic evaluation. Pediatrics 2007; 120(6): 1278-85.
Felker GM, Boehmer JP, Hruban RH, et al. Echocardiographic findings in fulminant and acute myocarditis. J Am Coll Cardiol 36(1): 227-32.
Mendes LA, Picard MH, Dec GW, Hartz VL, Palacios IF, Davidoff R. Ventricular remodeling in active myocarditis. Am Heart J 1999; 138(2 Pt 1): 303-8.
Hsiao J-F, Koshino Y, Bonnichsen CR, et al. Speckle tracking echocardiography in acute myocarditis. Int J Cardiovasc Imaging 2013; 29(2): 275-84.
Mahrholdt H, Goedecke C, Wagner A, et al. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance assessment of human myocarditis: A comparison to histology and molecular pathology. Circulation 2004; 109(10): 1250-8.
Laissy J-P, Hyafil F, Feldman LJ, et al. Differentiating acute myocardial infarction from myocarditis: Diagnostic value of early- and delayed-perfusion cardiac MR imaging. Radiology 2005; 237(1): 75-82.
Francone M, Chimenti C, Galea N, et al. CMR sensitivity varies with clinical presentation and extent of cell necrosis in biopsy-proven acute myocarditis. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 2014; 7(3): 254-63.
Friedrich MG, Sechtem U. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in myocarditis: A JACC white paper. J Am Coll Cardiol 2009; 53(17): 1475-87.
Ferreira VM, Piechnik SKTT. (1) mapping for the diagnosis of acute myocarditis using CMR: Comparison to T2-weighted and late gadolinium enhanced imaging. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 2013; 6(10): 1048-58.
Lurz P, Luecke C, Eitel I, et al. Comprehensive cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in patients with suspected myocarditis. J Am Coll Cardiol 2016; 67(15): 1800-11.
Messroghli DR, Moon JC, Ferreira VM. Clinical recommendations for cardiovascular magnetic resonance mapping of T1, T2, T2* and extracellular volume: A consensus statement by the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (SCMR) endorsed by the European Association for Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI). J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 2017; 19(1): 75.
Lagan J, Schmitt M, Miller CA. Clinical applications of multi-parametric CMR in myocarditis and systemic inflammatory diseases. Int J Cardiovasc Imaging 2018; 34(1): 35-54.
Bohnen S, Radunski UK, Lund GK, et al. Performance of T1 and T2 mapping cardiovascular magnetic resonance to detect active myocarditis in patients with recent-onset heart failure. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging 2015; 8(6)e003073
Gutberlet M, Spors B, Thoma T, et al. Suspected chronic myocarditis at cardiac MR: diagnostic accuracy and association with immunohistologically detected inflammation and viral persistence. Radiology 2008; 246(2): 401-9.
Kindermann I, Kindermann M, Kandolf R, et al. Predictors of outcome in patients with suspected myocarditis. Circulation 2008; 118(6): 639-48.
Kühl U, Lauer B, Souvatzoglu M, Vosberg H, Schultheiss H-P. Antimyosin scintigraphy and immunohistologic analysis of endomyocardial biopsy in patients with clinically suspected myocarditis-evidence of myocardial cell damage and inflammation in the absence of histologic signs of myocarditis. J Am Coll Cardiol 1998; 32(5): 1371-6.
Mahrholdt H, Wagner A, Deluigi CC, et al. Presentation, patterns of myocardial damage, and clinical course of viral myocarditis. Circulation 2006; 114(15): 1581-90.
Yilmaz A, Kindermann I, Kindermann M, et al. Comparative evaluation of left and right ventricular endomyocardial biopsy: Differences in complication rate and diagnostic performance. Circulation 2010; 122(9): 900.
Deckers JW, Hare JM, Baughman KL. Complications of transvenous right ventricular endomyocardial biopsy in adult patients with cardiomyopathy: A seven-year survey of 546 consecutive diagnostic procedures in a tertiary referral center. J Am Coll Cardiol 1992; 19(1): 43-7.
Bennett MK, Gilotra NA, Harrington C, et al. Evaluation of the role of endomyocardial biopsy in 851 patients with unexplained heart failure from 2000-2009. Circ Heart Fail 2013; 6(4): 676-84.
Holzmann M, Nicko A, Kühl U, et al. Complication rate of right ventricular endomyocardial biopsy via the femoral approach: A retrospective and prospective study analyzing 3048 diagnostic procedures over an 11-year period. Circulation 2008; 118(17): 1722-8.
Chimenti C, Frustaci A. Contribution and risks of left ventricular endomyocardial biopsy in patients with cardiomyopathies. Circulation 2013; 128(14): 1531-41.
Brighenti M, Donti A, Giulia Gagliardi M, et al. Endomyocardial biopsy safety and clinical yield in pediatric myocarditis: An Italian perspective. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2016; 87(4): 762.
Ghelani SJ, Spaeder MC, Pastor W, Spurney CF, Klugman D. Demographics, trends, and outcomes in pediatric acute myocarditis in the United States, 2006 to 2011. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 2006; 5(5): 622-7.
Suthar D, Dodd DA, Godown J. Identifying non-invasive tools to distinguish acute myocarditis from dilated cardiomyopathy in children. Pediatr Cardiol 2018; 39(6): 1134-8.
Chimenti C, Pieroni M, Maseri A, Frustaci A. Histologic findings in patients with clinical and instrumental diagnosis of sporadic arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia. J Am Coll Cardiol 2004; 43(12): 2305-13.
Pieroni M, DelloRusso A, Marzo F, et al. High prevalence of myocarditis mimicking arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy differential diagnosis by electroanatomic mapping-guided endomyocardial biopsy. J Am Coll Cardiol 2009; 53(8): 681-9.
Rahman JE, Helou EF, Gelzer-Bell R, et al. Noninvasive diagnosis of biopsy-proven cardiac amyloidosis. J Am Coll Cardiol 2004; 43(3): 410-5.
Frustaci A, Verardo R, Caldarulo M, Acconcia MC, Russo MA, Chimenti C. Myocarditis in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients presenting acute clinical deterioration. Eur Heart J 2007; 28(6): 733-40.
Wang WZ, Matsumori A, Yamada T, et al. Beneficial effects of amlodipine in a murine model of congestive heart failure induced by viral myocarditis. A possible mechanism through inhibition of nitric oxide production. Circulation 1997; 95(1): 245-51.
[ ] [PMID: 8994443]
Wang WZ, Matsumori A, Yamada T, et al. Beneficial effects of amlodipine in a murine model of congestive heart failure induced by viral myocarditis. Circulation 1997; 95(1): 245-51.
Dickstein K, Cohen-Solal A, Filippatos G, et al. ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure. Eur J Heart Fail 2008; 10(10): 933-89.
Digitalis Investigation Group. The effect of digoxin on mortality and morbidity in patients with heart failure. N Engl J Med 1997; 336(8): 525-33.
Matsumori A, Igata H, Ono K, et al. High doses of digitalis increase the myocardial production of proinflammatory cytokines and worsen myocardial injury in viral myocarditis: A possible mechanism of digitalis toxicity. Jpn Circ J 1999; 63(12): 934-40.
[ ] [PMID: 10614837]
McCarthy RE, Boehmer JP, Hruban RH, et al. Long-term outcome of fulminant myocarditis as compared with acute (nonfulminant) myocarditis. N Engl J Med 2000; 342(10): 690-5.
Tsuboi H, Sone T, Sassa H, et al. Rescue of a patient with fulminant myocarditis by percutaneous extracorporeal bypass. Jpn J Med 29(5): 519-22.
Paden ML, Conrad SA, Rycus PT, Thiagarajan RR, Registry ELSO. Extracorporeal Life Support Organization Registry Report 2. ASAIO J 2012; 59(3): 202-10.
Rajagopal SK, Almond CS, Laussen PC, Rycus PT, Wypij D, Thiagarajan RR. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for the support of infants, children, and young adults with acute myocarditis: A review of the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization Registry. Crit Care Med 2010; 38(2): 382-7.
Smith M, Vukomanovic A, Brodie D, Thiagarajan R, Rycus P, Buscher H. Duration of veno-arterial extracorporeal life support (VA ECMO) and outcome: an analysis of the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO) registry. Crit Care 2017; 21(1): 45.
O’Brien C, Monteagudo J, Schad C, et al. entrifugal pumps and hemolysis in pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) patients: An analysis of Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO) registry data. J Pediatr Surg 2017; 52(6): 975-8.
Lorusso R, Alexander P, Rycus P, Barbaro R. The Extracorporeal Life Support Organization Registry: Update and perspectives. Ann Cardiothorac Surg 2019; 8(1): 93-8.
Diddle JW, Almodovar MC, Rajagopal SK, Rycus PT, Thiagarajan RR. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for the support of adults with acute myocarditis 2015; 43(5): 1016-25.
Acker MA. Mechanical circulatory support for patients with acute-fulminant myocarditis Ann Thorac Surg 2001; 71(3 Suppl): S73-6-82-5.
Sanders DB, Sowell SR, Willis B, et al. The role of extracorporeal life support in acute myocarditis: A bridge to recovery? J Extra Corpor Technol 2012; 44(4): 205-9.
[PMID: 23441561]
Yang ZH, Ning BT, Zhang CM, Lin R, Ye S, Liu T. Clinical application of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in children with refractory cardiopulmonary failure. World J Pediatr 2016; 12(3): 364-7.
[ ] [PMID: 27351572]
Hetzer R, Stiller B. Technology insight: Use of ventricular assist devices in children. Nat Clin Pract Cardiovasc Med 2006; 3(7): 377-86.
Trachtenberg BH, Hare JM. Inflammatory cardiomyopathic syndromes. Circ Res 2017; 121(7): 803-18.
Frustaci A, Russo MA, Chimenti C. Randomized study on the efficacy of immunosuppressive therapy in patients with virus-negative inflammatory cardiomyopathy: The TIMIC study. Eur Heart J 1995; 30(16): 1995-2002.
Pieroni M. Recognizing and treating myocarditis in recent-onset systemic sclerosis heart disease: Potential utility of immunosuppressive therapy in cardiac damage progression. Semin Arthritis Rheum 2014; 43(4): 526-35.
Appenzeller S, Pineau C, Clarke A. Acute lupus myocarditis: Clinical features and outcome. Lupus 2011; 20(9): 981-8.
Camargo PR, Snitcowsky R. Acute lupus myocarditis: Clinical features and outcome. Pediatr Cardiol 1995; 16(2): 61-8.
Robinson J, Hartling L, Vandermeer B, Klassen TP. Intravenous immunoglobulin for presumed viral myocarditis in children and adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2015; 5CD004370
Kühl U, Pauschinger M, Schwimmbeck PL, et al. Interferon-beta treatment eliminates cardiotropic viruses and improves left ventricular function in patients with myocardial persistence of viral genomes and left ventricular dysfunction. Circulation 2003; 107(22): 2793-8.
Matsumoto M, Asaumi Y, Nakamura Y, et al. Clinical determinants of successful weaning from extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in patients with fulminant myocarditis. ESC Heart Fail 2018; 5(4): 675-84.
Kandolin R, Lehtonen J, Salmenkivi K, et al. Diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of giant-cell myocarditis in the era of combined immunosuppression. Circ Heart Fail 2013; 6(1): 15-22.
Cooper LT, Berry GJ, Shabetai R. Idiopathic giant-cell myocarditis--natural history and treatment. Multicenter Giant Cell Myocarditis Study Group Investigators N Engl J Med 1997; 336(26): 1860-6.
Mounts AW, Amr S, Jamshidi R, et al. A cluster of fulminant myocarditis cases in children. Pediatr Cardiol 1997; 22: 34-9.
Pulerwitz TC, Cappola TP, Felker GM, Hare JM, Baughman KL, Kasper EK. Mortality in primary and secondary myocarditis. Am Heart J 2004; 147(4): 746-50.
Kühl U, Pauschinger M, Seeberg B, et al. Viral persistence in the myocardium is associated with progressive cardiac dysfunction. Circulation 2005; 112(13): 1965-70.
Brunetti L, DeSantis ERH. Treatment of viral myocarditis caused by coxsackievirus B. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2008; 65(2): 132-7.
Foerster SR, Canter CE, Cinar A, et al. Ventricular remodeling and survival are more favorable for myocarditis than for idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy in childhood: An outcomes study from the Pediatric Cardiomyopathy Registry. Circ Heart Fail 2010; 3(6): 689-97.
Towbin JA, Lowe AM, Colan SD, et al. Incidence, causes, and outcomes of dilated cardiomyopathy in children. JAMA 2006; 296(15): 1867-76.
[ ] [PMID: 17047217]
Fung G, Luo H, Qiu Y, Yang D, McManus B. Myocarditis. Circ Res 2016; 118: 496-514.
Ferguson JE, Chalmers RJ, Rowlands DJ. Reversible dilated cardiomyopathy following treatment of atopic eczema with Chinese herbal medicine. Br J Dermatol 1997; 136(4): 592-3.
[ ] [PMID: 9155965]
De Bold AJ, Adolfo J. Predicting, detecting and monitoring treatment of cardiomyopathies and myocarditis USP8263325 2012.
Ellis J, Moore G, Allan GM, et al. Prevention of myocarditis, abortion and intrauterine infection associated with porcine circovirus-2. US7211379 2004.
Aharinejad S. GSTP1 for the treatment of ischemic heart diseases. EP3120865 2017.
Zhou M. Neuregulin based methods and compositions for treating viral myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy. WO2003099320, 2003.
Yoichi B, Nunokawa M. Myocarditis as an active ingredient NF- [kappa] B inhibitors, dilated cardiomyopathy and heart failure prophylactic or therapeutic agents. JP4660045 2000.
Matsumori A. Medicinal compositions for preventing or treating viral myocarditis. CN1162149 2000.
Akira M, Yasuo N, Yuji T. Composition for preventing, treating or improving myocarditis. JP2005239581, 2004.
Ni W. Medicine for treating myocarditis. CN100394965, 2006.
Li A, Sun M, Cao S. Decoction for treating viral myocarditis. CN102512587 2012.
Jay JA. Including rapamycin, myocarditis, cardiomyopathy, endocarditis and pericarditis therapeutic pharmaceutical composition for. KR100449194, 1995.

Rights & Permissions Print Export Cite as
© 2023 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy