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Current Cardiology Reviews


ISSN (Print): 1573-403X
ISSN (Online): 1875-6557

General Review Article

Takotsubo Syndrome: Clinical Manifestations, Etiology and Pathogenesis

Author(s): Ekaterina S. Prokudina, Boris K. Kurbatov, Konstantin V. Zavadovsky, Alexander V. Vrublevsky, Natalia V. Naryzhnaya, Yuri B. Lishmanov, Leonid N. Maslov* and Peter R. Oeltgen

Volume 17, Issue 2, 2021

Published on: 29 January, 2020

Page: [188 - 203] Pages: 16

DOI: 10.2174/1573403X16666200129114330

Price: $65


The purpose of the review is the analysis of clinical and experimental data on the etiology and pathogenesis of takotsubo syndrome (TS). TS is characterized by contractile dysfunction, which usually affects the apical region of the heart without obstruction of coronary artery, moderate increase in myocardial necrosis markers, prolonged QTc interval (in 50% of patients), sometimes elevation of ST segment (in 19% of patients), increase N-Terminal Pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide level, microvascular dysfunction, sometimes spasm of the epicardial coronary arteries (in 10% of patients), myocardial edema, and life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias (in 11% of patients). Stress cardiomyopathy is a rare disease, it is observed in 0.6 - 2.5% of patients with acute coronary syndrome. The occurrence of takotsubo syndrome is 9 times higher in women, who are aged 60-70 years old, than in men. The hospital mortality among patients with TS corresponds to 3.5% - 12%. Physical or emotional stress do not precede disease in all patients with TS. Most of patients with TS have neurological or mental illnesses. The level of catecholamines is increased in patients with TS, therefore, the occurrence of TS is associated with excessive activation of the adrenergic system. The negative inotropic effect of catecholamines is associated with the activation of β2 adrenergic receptors. An important role of the adrenergic system in the pathogenesis of TS is confirmed by studies which were performed using 125I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (125I -MIBG). TS causes edema and inflammation of the myocardium. The inflammatory response in TS is systemic. TS causes impaired coronary microcirculation and reduces coronary reserve. There is a reason to believe that an increase in blood viscosity may play an important role in the pathogenesis of microcirculatory dysfunction in patients with TS. Epicardial coronary artery spasm is not obligatory for the occurrence of TS. Cortisol, endothelin-1 and microRNAs are challengers for the role of TS triggers. A decrease in estrogen levels is a factor contributing to the onset of TS. The central nervous system appears to play an important role in the pathogenesis of TS.

Keywords: Etiology, pathogenesis, takotsubo syndrome, stress cardiomyopathy, endothelin-1, microRNAs.

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