Although there are formidable barriers to the oral delivery of biologically active drugs, Considerable progress in the field has been made, using both physical and chemical strategies of absorption enhancement. A possible method to enhance oral absorption is to exploit the phenomenon of lipophilic modification and mono and oligosaccharide conjugation. Depending on the uptake mechanism targeted, different modifications can be employed. To target passive diffusion, lipid modification has been used, whereas the targeting of sugar transport systems has been achieved through drugs conjugated with sugars. These drug delivery units can be specifically tailored to transport a wide variety of poorly absorbed drugs through the skin, and across the barriers that normally inhibit absorption from the gut or into the brain. The delivery system can be conjugated to the drug in such a way as to release the active compound after it has been absorbed (i.e. the drug becomes a prodrug), or to form a biologically stable and active molecule (i.e. the conjugate becomes a new drug moiety). Examples where lipid, sugar and lipid-sugar conjugates have resulted in enhanced drug delivery will be highlighted in this review.
Keywords: Lipid Sugar, Liposaccharide Based Delivery, Lipidic Conjugates, Drug Targeting, Sugar Conjugates, Sugar Transporters, Central Nervous System Targeting, Renal Targeting, Hepatic Targeting, Lipamino acid