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Current Pharmaceutical Design


ISSN (Print): 1381-6128
ISSN (Online): 1873-4286

Review Article

Pathophysiology of Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury (CIAKI)

Author(s): Georgios Vlachopanos , Dimitrios Schizas, Natasha Hasemaki and Argyrios Georgalis*

Volume 25, Issue 44, 2019

Page: [4642 - 4647] Pages: 6

DOI: 10.2174/1381612825666191210152944

Price: $65


Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CIAKI) is a severe complication associated with the use of iodinated contrast media (CM); a sudden but potentially reversible fall in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) typically occurring 48-72 hours after CM administration. Principal risk factors related with the presentation of CIAKI are preexisting chronic kidney disease and diabetes mellitus. Studies on CIAKI present considerable complexity because of differences in CM type and dose, controversies in definition and baseline comorbidities. Despite that, it should be noted that CIAKI poses a serious health problem because it is a very common cause of hospitalacquired AKI, linked to increased morbidity and mortality and utilizing growing healthcare resources. The pathogenesis of CIAKI is heterogeneous and, thus, is incompletely understood. Three basic mechanisms appear to simultaneously occur for CIAKI development: Renal vasoconstriction and medullary hypoxia, tubular cell toxicity and reactive oxygen species formation. The relative contribution of each one of these mechanisms is unknown but they ultimately lead to epithelial and endothelial cell apoptosis and GFR reduction. Further research is needed in order to better clarify CIAKI pathophysiology and accordingly introduce effective preventive and therapeutic strategies.

Keywords: Acute kidney injury, AKI, contrast-induced nephropathy, iodinated contrast media, radiocontrast, pathophysiology, pathogenesis, nephrotoxicity.

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