Background: Olive oil and fruits are essential components of Mediterranean diets. The olive tree is a prevalent plant species and one of the important cultivated crops of the Mediterranean region. The present study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of olive in achieving glucose homeostasis through the inhibition of carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes using in vitro models and also determine the chemical composition of olive oil by GC/MS.
Methods: The chemical composition of olive oil was determined by GC/MS and its antidiabetic activity was assessed through inhibition α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes in in vitro models.
Results: The olive oil analysis by GC/MS yielded 41 constituents amounting to 98.21% of total oil composition. Oleic acid, 3-(octadecyloxy) propyl ester (19.34%), arachidonic acid (11.25%), oleic acid (6.07%), Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) (9.50%), pentadecanoic acid (5.53%), palmitic acid (3.86%), and linoleic acid (3.13%) were the major components of olive oil. Olive oil and extract produce dosedependent inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes. The IC50 values for olive oil, olive extract, and acarbose were found as 210.50±4.76, 121.8±3.18, and 91.04±2.16 μg/mL, respectively, against the α-amylase enzyme. The IC50 values for olive oil, extract, and acarbose were found as 204.3±3.41, 165.04±5.27 and 116.5±2.17 μg/mL, respectively, against the α-glucosidase enzyme.
Conclusion: The result of this study concluded that olive oil has oleic acid and its ester derivatives as major constituents. The study findings also confirm the traditional claim of olive use in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.
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