Background: The properties of materials depend on the way of construction and the arrangement of atoms and molecules. Therefore, it is very important to know synthesis methods for the preparation of novel materials as per their desired structure. The low-temperature synthesis methods, such as polymeric citrate precursor and sonochemical methods are efficient enough to control the preparation of novel nanoparticles with morphological differences that leads to the novel devices with desired technological performances. These methods are simple, very less expensive and are easy to handle to operate for the synthesis of nanoparticles as per the expected morphology and dimensions.
Methods: Polymeric citrate precursor method, a chelate-based method involves the reaction between mixed cations with citric acid, and then these cations are cross-linked with the help of ethylene glycol for the esterification process. Gel composites were heated which burns the organic moieties leaving behind the nanoparticles, and burning gels becomes essential for the reduction of nanoparticles. The sonochemical method, on the other hand, uses ultrasonic the irradiation results. The acoustic cavitation and high intensity ultrasound has been exploited for the preparation of different series of nanoparticles.
Results: Commonly known for polymeric citrate method as Pechini gel pyrolysis method gives the evidence of versatile and elegant method for the synthesis of nanoparticles. The sonochemical method provides an unusual route of nanoparticle fabrication without bulk and that too with low temperature and pressure or less reaction time. These two methods have better control for the desired shape morphology and size and provide many opportunities for the use of these prepared nanoparticles in various aspects of science and technology.
Conclusion: Polymeric citrate precursor and sonochemical methods are efficient to reduce to promote desirable reaction conditions and reduce the metal ions for the fabrication of nanoparticles. The prepared nanoparticles by using such low-cost elegant methods are uniform with a small size distribution, reproducible with good yield as per the demanded applications.
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