Generic placeholder image

Innovations in Corrosion and Materials Science (Discontinued)


ISSN (Print): 2352-0949
ISSN (Online): 2352-0957

Research Article

Steel Corrosion and Control in Concrete Made with Seawater

Author(s): Arpit Goyal* and S.R. Karade

Volume 10, Issue 1, 2020

Page: [58 - 67] Pages: 10

DOI: 10.2174/2352094909666191121104836


Background: Water scarcity is amongst the biggest problems the world is facing in the 21st century. To reduce the consumption of Potable Water (PW) in construction industries and to make concrete construction more sustainable, its replacement with Seawater (SW) has been explored. Technical literature on this subject is not widely available. Such investigations are necessary for determining suitable remedial measures for the effective utilization of seawater for making sustainable concrete.

Objective: In the present study, use of Seawater (SW) has been explored as both mixing and curing water in concrete. To counter the adverse effects of seawater on strength and corrosion resistance, use of Fly Ash (FA) and Red Mud (RM) as cement replacements in the seawater concrete had been investigated.

Methods: The possibility of the use of seawater in making concrete has been explored by literature and experimental investigations. The obtained results are discussed in light of the information available in the literature. Various tests were performed such as compressive strength, Half-cell potential, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and microstructural analysis using SEM and XRD.

Results: Results showed higher compressive strength and improved corrosion resistance for Seawater Concrete (SWC) with FA & RM as compared to Potable Water Concrete (PWC) specimens. SWC specimens without supplementary cementitious materials show lower electrical resistivity and potential more negative than -450 mV indicating severe corrosion. 30% FA and 5% RM is identified as the optimum combination for the most favorable response in terms of mechanical strength and electrical resistivity of seawater concrete. After 90 days, the compressive strength of 35.77 MPa was achieved.

Conclusion: Combination of both FA and RM in SWC reduces chloride migration and increases chloride binding by the formation of Friedel’s salt. Half-cell potential (HCP) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) results confirmed a reduction in corrosion rate in SWC specimens with fly ash and red mud.

Keywords: Corrosion, seawater, fly ash, red mud, reinforced concrete, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS).

« Previous
Graphical Abstract
S. Senaratne, D. Gerace, O. Mirza, V.W.Y. Tam, and W.H. Kang, "The costs and benefits of combining recycled aggregate with steel fibres as a sustainable, structural material", J. Clean. Prod., vol. 112, pp. 2318-2327, 2016.
K-H. Yang, Y-B. Jung, M-S. Cho, and S-H. Tae, "Effect of supplementary cementitious materials on reduction of CO2 emissions from concrete", J. Clean. Prod., vol. 103, pp. 774-783, 2015.
IS 456, “IS 456: 2000 - Plain and reinforced concrete - code and practice.Bur. Indian Stand, .p. 144, 2000,
"ACI Committee 318, Building Code Requirements for Struc-tural Concrete (ACI 318-08)" and commentary (ACI 318R-08), American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, Michigan, 1st Printing, January, 2008",
F.M. Wegian, "“Effect of seawater for mixing and curing on structural concrete,” IES J. Part A Civ", Struct. Eng., vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 235-243, 2010.
H.Y. Ghorab, M.S. Hilal, and A. Antar, "Effect of mixing and curing waters on the behaviour of cement pastes and concrete Part 2: Properties of cement paste and concrete", Cement Concr. Res., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 69-72, 1990.
S.K. Kaushik, and S. Islam, "Suitability of sea water for mixing structural concrete exposed to a marine environment", Cement Concr. Compos., vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 177-185, 1995.
A. Younis, U. Ebead, P. Suraneni, and A. Nanni, "Fresh and hardened properties of seawater-mixed concrete", Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 190, pp. 276-286, 2018.
W.J. McCoy, “Mixing and Curing Water for Concrete,” in Significance of Tests and Properties of Concrete and Concrete-Making Materials..ed. R. Mielenz, D. Bloem, L. Gregg, L. Gregg, C. Kesler, and W. Price (West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International, 1966) 515-521,
T.U. Mohammed, H. Hamada, and T. Yamaji, "Concrete after 30 years of exposure - Part II: Chloride ingress and corrosion of steel bars", ACI Mater. J., vol. 101, no. 1, pp. 13-18, 2004.
A. Neville, "Seawater in the Mixture", Concr. Int., vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 48-51, 2001.
T. Nishida, N. Otsuki, H. Ohara, and Z.M. Garba-say, "Some considerations for the applicability of seawater as mixing water in concrete", J. Mater. Civ. Eng., vol. 1980, pp. 1-7, 2013.
R. Shalon, and M. Raphael, Influence of sea water on corrosion of reinforcement.J. Am. Concr. Inst., vol. 55-76, pp. 1251-1268, 1959,
P. Alaejos, and M.A. Bermudez, "Influence of seawater curing in standard and high-strength submerged concrete", J. Mater. Civ. Eng., vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 915-920, 2011.
Z. Shi, Z. Shui, Q. Li, and H. Geng, "Combined effect of metakaolin and sea water on performance and microstructures of concrete", Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 74, pp. 57-64, 2015.
S. Ozaki, and N. Sugata, "Sixty-Year-Old concrete in a marine environment", Special Publication, vol. 109, pp. 587-597, 1988.
N. Otsuki, T. Nishida, C. Yi, and T. Nagata, "Effect of blast furnace slag powder and fly ash on durability of concrete mixed with seawater", 4th Int. Conf. Durab. Concr. Struct, 2014pp. 229-241
J. Xiao, C. Qiang, A. Nanni, and K. Zhang, "Use of sea-sand and seawater in concrete construction: Current status and future opportunities", Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 155, pp. 1101-1111, 2017.
J. Liu, "Understanding the interacted mechanism between carbonation and chloride aerosol attack in ordinary Portland cement concrete", Cement Concr. Res., vol. 95, pp. 217-225, 2017.
J. Liu, "Degradation of fly ash concrete under the coupled effect of carbonation and chloride aerosol ingress", Corros. Sci., vol. 112, pp. 364-372, 2016.
A. Goyal, H.S. Pouya, E. Ganjian, and P. Claisse, "A review of corrosion and protection of steel in concrete", Arab. J. Sci. Eng., vol. 43, no. 10, 2018.
S.R. Karade, and A. Goyal, Corrosion of Steel in Seawater Mixed Concrete & Control Measures..Innov Corr. Mat Sci, 2016. [E-pub ahead of print],
A. Neville, "Chloride attack of reinforced concrete: an overview", Mater. Struct., vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 63-70, 1995.
T.U. Mohammed, H. Hamada, and T. Yamaji, "Concrete after 30 years of exposure - Part 1: Mineralogy, microstructures, and interfaces", ACI Mater. J., vol. 101, no. 1, pp. 3-12, 2004.
N. Otsuki, D. Furuya, T. Saito, and Y. Tadokoro, "Possibility of sea water as mixing water in concrete", 36th Conf. ’Our World Concr. Struct, 2011, pp. 1-9,
S.D. Kadam, P.M. Devikrishna, and S. Chowdhury, "An examination of possible usage of mumbai creek sand for making concrete – a review", Int. J. Sci. Eng. Res., vol. 5, no. 12, pp. 54-58, 2014.
B.B. Hope, and A.K.C. Lp, "Corrosion of steel in concrete made with slag cement", ACI Mater. J., no. 84, pp. 525-531, 1987.
J. Geiseler, H. Kollo, and E. Lang, "Influence of blast-furnace cements on durability of concrete structures", ACI Mater. J., vol. 92, no. 3, pp. 252-257, 1995.
J. Liu, G. Ou, Q. Qiu, X. Chen, J. Hong, and F. Xing, "Chloride transport and microstructure of concrete with/without fly ash under atmospheric chloride condition", Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 146, pp. 493-501, 2017.
J. Liu, X. Wang, Q. Qiu, G. Ou, and F. Xing, "Understanding the effect of curing age on the chloride resistance of fly ash blended concrete by rapid chloride migration test", Mater. Chem. Phys., vol. 196, pp. 315-323, 2017.
J. Liu, Q. Qiu, F. Xing, and D. Pan, "Permeation properties and pore structure of surface layer of fly ash concrete", Materials (Basel), vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 4282-4296, 2014.
[ PMID: 28788677]
D.V. Ribeiro, J.A. Labrincha, and M.R. Morelli, "Effect of the addition of red mud on the corrosion parameters of reinforced concrete", Cement Concr. Res., vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 124-133, 2012.
A. Collazo, and G. Pena, "Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy as a tool for study-ing steel corrosion inhibition in simulated concrete envi-ronments - red mud used as rebar corrosion", ASTM Int., vol. 3, no. 2, p. 10, 2006.
L. Senff, R.C.E. Modolo, A.S. Silva, V.M. Ferreira, D. Hotza, and J.A. Labrincha, "Influence of red mud addition on rheological behavior and hardened properties of mortars", Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 65, pp. 84-91, 2014.
D. Ribeiro, "Effect of red mud on the corrosion of reinforced concrete studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy", Int. Sch. Res. Netw., vol. 2011, pp. 1-11, 2011.
D.A Koleva, K. Van Breugel, and J. Hu. The effect of electri-cal current flow on cement- based microstructure : bulk ma-trix alterations within cathodic protection in reinforced concrete", In Second International Conference on Microstructural-related Durability of Cementitious Composites Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 11-13 April 2012.,
Bureau of Indian Standard, IS 8112: 2013, Ordinary Portland Cement, 43 Grade- Specification 2013.
Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS), Pulverized fuel ash - specification part 1 for use as pozzolana in cement, Cement mortar and concrete., Second Revision, 2003.
Indian Standards Institution, IS:8770 Specification for Artificial Sea Water for Laboratory Use. 1978..
Bureau of Indian Standards-I.S.; .10262-2009, “Concrete Mix Proportioning- Guidelines.” 2009,
"Bureau of Indian Standards-IS 516 -1959, “Method of Tests for Strength of Concrete.” 2004",
ASTM International, Standard Test Method for Half-Cell Potentials of Uncoated Reinforcing Steel in Concrete., vol. 15, pp. 1-7, 2015.
D.V. Ribeiro, C.A.C. Souza, and J.C.C. Abrantes, "Use of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) to monitoring the corrosion of reinforced concrete", Rev. IBRACON Estrut. Mater., vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 529-546, 2015.
N. Vedalakshmi, "R.; Palaniswamy, “Analysis of the electrochemical phenomenon at the rebar–concrete interface using the electrochemical impedance spectroscopic technique", Mag. Concr. Res., vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 177-189, 2010.
Q. Qiu, Z. Gu, J. Xiang, C. Huang, and B. Dong, "Carbonation study of cement-based material by electrochemical impedance method", ACI Mater. J., vol. 114, no. 4, pp. 605-617, 2017.
Q. Qiu, "Influence of slag incorporation on electrochemical behavior of carbonated cement", Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 147, pp. 661-668, 2017.
A. Aguilar, A. Sagues, and R. Power, "Corrosion rate of steel in concrete", ASTM Spec. Tech. Publ., vol. 1, pp. 66-85, 1990.
B. Dong, "Electrochemical impedance interpretation of the carbonation behavior for fly ash-slag-cement materials", Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 93, pp. 933-942, 2015.
B. Dong, "Characterization of carbonation behavior of fly ash blended cement materials by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy method", Cement Concr. Compos., vol. 65, pp. 118-127, 2016.
D.V. Ribeiro, and J.C.C. Abrantes, "Application of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) to monitor the corrosion of reinforced concrete: A new approach", Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 111, pp. 98-104, 2016.
H.K. Kim, J.G. Jang, Y.C. Choi, and H.K. Lee, "Improved chloride resistance of high-strength concrete amended with coal bottom ash for internal curing", Comput. Chem. Eng., vol. 71, pp. 334-343, 2014.
R. Luo, Y. Cai, C. Wang, and X. Huang, "Study of chloride binding and diffusion in GGBS concrete", Cement Concr. Res., vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 1-7, 2003.
P. Hewlett, "Lea’ s Chemistry of Cement and Concrete, Butterworth- Heinemann, Elsevier, 2004, vol. 58 no. 10, pp. 896",
U.A. Birnin-Yauri, and F.P. Glasser, "Friedel’s salt, Ca2Al(OH)6(Cl.OH)•2H2O: Its solid solutions and their role in chloride binding", Cement Concr. Res., vol. 28, no. 12, pp. 1713-1723, 1998.
T. Kim, "The effects of polyaluminum chloride on the mechanical and microstructural properties of alkali-activated slag cement paste", Cement Concr. Compos., vol. 96, pp. 46-54, 2019.
X. Wang, W. Ni, R. Jin, and B. Liu, "Formation of Friedel ’ s salt using steel slag and potash mine brine water", Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 220, pp. 119-127, 2019.

© 2022 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy