Chronic neuroinflammation is a common feature of the pathogenic mechanisms involved in various neurodegenerative age-associated disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, and dementia.
In particular, persistent low-grade inflammation may disrupt the brain endothelial barrier and cause a significant increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines and immune cells into the cerebral tissue that, in turn, leads to microglia dysfunction and loss of neuroprotective properties.
Nowadays, growing evidence highlights a strong association between persistent peripheral inflammation, as well as metabolic alterations, and neurodegenerative disorder susceptibility. The identification of common pathways involved in the development of these diseases, which modulate the signalling and immune response, is an important goal of ongoing research.
The aim of this review is to elucidate which inflammation-related molecules are robustly associated with the risk of neurodegenerative diseases. Of note, peripheral biomarkers may represent direct measures of pathophysiologic processes common of aging and neuroinflammatory processes. In addition, molecular changes associated with the neurodegenerative process might be present many decades before the disease onset. Therefore, the identification of a comprehensive markers panel, closely related to neuroinflammation, could be helpful for the early diagnosis, and the identification of therapeutic targets to counteract the underlying chronic inflammatory processes.
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