Generic placeholder image

Current Bioactive Compounds


ISSN (Print): 1573-4072
ISSN (Online): 1875-6646

Research Article

Probiotic Frozen Yoghurt Supplemented with Coconut Flour Green Nanoparticles

Author(s): Heba H. Salama*, Samy M. Abdelhamid and Nabil S. Abd-Rabou

Volume 16, Issue 5, 2020

Page: [661 - 670] Pages: 10

DOI: 10.2174/1573407215666191111121553


Background: Frozen yoghurt is a suitable vehicle to deliver bioactive compounds and beneficial microorganisms, and to develop new functional dairy products.

Methods: Bifidobacterium bifidum was used in the manufacture of frozen yoghurt, whereas skim milk powder was substituted by Nanoparticles Coconut Flour (NCF) and Coconut Flour (CF). The physicochemical, microbiological and sensory properties were assessed for frozen yoghurt from different treatments.

Results: The prepared NCF by ball-milling had sizes that range between 81.96nm to 83.53nm. The addition of NCF affected variably the pH values, moisture content, the overrun, fiber content, freezing points and viscosity of the prepared frozen yoghurt depending on the ratio of substituted skim milk.

Also, the addition of NCF improved the viability of Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium breve, Streptococci, and Lactobacilli and total bacterial count of frozen yoghurt during frozen storage. The addition of NCF improved the sensory properties of frozen yoghurt.

Conclusion: The use of Nanoparticles Coconut Flour (NCF) and Bifidobacterium sp., in the preparation of frozen yoghurt improved its physicochemical, microbiological and sensory properties.

Keywords: Frozen yoghurt, Coconut Flour (CF), Nanoparticles Coconut Flour (NCF), Ball-milling, probiotic bacteria, human microbiota.

Graphical Abstract
Amini, S.M.; Gilaki, M.; Karchani, M. Safety of nanotechnology in food industries. Electron. Physician, 2014, 6(4), 962-968.
[PMID: 25763176]
Charitidis, C.A.; Georgiou, P.; Koklioti, M.A.; Trompeta, A.F.; Markakis, V. Manufacturing nanomaterials: From research to industry. Manuf. Rev. (Les Ulis), 2014, 1(11), 1-19.
Shahrbabak, M.S.; Rozbahan, Y.; Shahrbabak, M.M.; Moradi, M. Influence of different levels of digestible undegradable protein on the carcass characteristic of Kermani male lambs in Iran. Int. J. Agric. Biol., 2009, 11, 643-646.
Liu, B.; Wang, H.; Hu, T.; Zhang, P.; Zhang, Z.; Pan, S.; Hu, H. Ball-milling changed the physicochemical properties of SPI and its cold-set gels. J. Food Eng., 2017, 195, 158-165.
Sun, C.; Liu, R.; Wu, T.; Liang, B.; Shi, C.; Zhang, M. Effect of superfine grinding on the structural and physicochemical properties of whey protein and applications for microparticulated proteins. Food Sci. Biotechnol., 2015, 24, 1637-1643.
Wang, C.C.R.; Jhihying, C.; Poyuan, C. Effect of micronization on functional properties of the water caltrop (Trapa taiwanensis Nakai) pericarp. Food Chem., 2009, 113, 970-974.
Ramaswamy, L. Coconut flour- A low carbohydrate, gluten free flour. Int. J. Ayurvedic Herb. Med., 2014, 4(1), 1426-1436.
Naik, A.; Madhusudhan, M.C.; Raghavarao, K.S.M.S.; Subba, D. Downstream processing for production of value added products from coconut. Curr. Biochem. Eng., 2015, 2, 168-180.
Salama, H.H.; Abdelhamid, S.M.; Dairouty, R.M.K.E. Coconut bio-yogurt phytochemical-chemical and antimicrobial-microbial activities. Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 2019, 22(11), 527-536.
[] [PMID: 31930831]
Sanful, R.E. Promotion of coconut in the production of yoghurt. Afr. J. Food Sci., 2009, 3(5), 147-149.
Ezeonu, C.S.; Tatah, V.S.; Nwokwu, C.D.; Jackson, S.M. Quantification of physicochemical components in yoghurts from coconut. Tiger Nut and Fresh Cow Milk. Adv. Biotech. Micro., 2016, 1(5), 1-8.
Jayasundera, M.; Fernando, K. Development and quality evaluation of coconut milk based soft ice cream. Annal. Food Sci. Tech., 2014, 15(2), 227-230.
Choo, S.Y.; Leong, S.K.; Lu, Henna Physicochemical and sensory properties of ice-cream formulated with virgin coconut oil. Food Sci. Technol. Int., 2010, 16(6), 531-511.
Khurana, H.K.; Kanawjia, S.K. Recent trends in development of fermented milks. Curr. Nutr. Food Sci., 2007, 3, 91-108.
Soukoulis, C.; Yonekura, L.; Gan, H.H.; Behboudi-Jobbehdar, S.; Parmenter, C.; Fisk, I. Probiotic edible films as a new strategy for developing functional bakery products: The case of pan bread. Food Hydrocoll., 2014, 39(100), 231-242.
[] [PMID: 25089068]
Heller, K.J. Probiotic bacteria in fermented foods: product characteristics and starter organisms. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 2001, 73(2)(Suppl.), 374S-379S.
[] [PMID: 11157344]
Homayouni, A.; Ansari, F.; Azizi, A.; Pourjafar, H.; Madadi, M. Cheese as a potential food carrier to deliver probiotic microorganisms into the human gut: A review. Curr. Nutr. Food Sci., 2018, 14, 1.
Saleh, F.A.; El-Sayed, E.M. Milk and dairy products for a healthy future. Proceedings of the 9th Egyptian Conference for Dairy Science and Technology, 2004, pp. 323-337.
Kebary, K.M.K.; Badawi, R.M.; Badran, I.I.; Hussein, S.A. Influence of some nutrients and bile salt on the production of antimicrobial agents by Bifido bacteria. Egypt. J Dairy Sci., 2005, 33, 127-170.
Marteau, P. pochart, P.; Dore, J.; Bear, M.C; Bernalier, A.; Corthier, G. Comparative study of bacteria groups within the human cecal and fecal microbiota. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 2001, 67, 4939.
[] [PMID: 11571208]
Calder, P.C.; Kew, S. The immune system: a target for functional foods? Br. J. Nutr., 2002, 88(Suppl. 2), S165-S177.
[] [PMID: 12495459]
Wright, A.V.; Vilponen, S.T.; Blopis, M.P.; Colins, K.; Kiely, B.; Shanahan, F.; Dunne, C. The survival and colonic adhesion of Bifidobacterium infants in patients with ulcerative colitis. Int. Dairy J., 2002, 12, 197.
Salama, H.H.; Samy Mohamed Abdelhamid, S.M.; El Dairouty, R.M.K. Bio-fermented dairy products rich in fibers and fortified by coconut flour using nanotechnology. The Patent Office at the Egyptian Academy of Scientific Research and Technology Patent No. 61/2019,, 2019.
Official Method of Analysis (A.O.A.C.) Associated of Official Analytical Chemists, 18th ed; Gaithersburg, MD, USA, 2007.
Luddy, F.E.; Barvord, R.A.; Reienschnuder, R.W. Direct conversion of lipid components to their fatty acid methyl esters. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 1960, 37, 447-451.
Zheng, W.; Wang, S.Y. Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds in selected herbs. J. Agric. Food Chem., 2001, 49(11), 5165-5170.
[] [PMID: 11714298]
Moldovan, B.; Iasko, B.; David, L. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of some commercial fruit- flavoured yogurts. Studia. Ubb. Chemia. LXI, 2016, 3(I), 101-108.
Saberi, A.H.; Fang, Y.; McClements, D.J. Fabrication of vitamin E-enriched nanoemulsions: factors affecting particle size using spontaneous emulsification. J. Colloid Interface Sci., 2013, 391, 95-102.
[] [PMID: 23116862]
Salama, H.H.; El-Sayed, M.M.; Abd El-Salam, M.H. Preparation of ß-carotene enriched nanoemulsion by spontaneous emulsification using oleic acid as nano carrier. Res. J. Pharm. Biol. Chem. Sci., 2016, 7(4), 585-593.
Harrigan, W.; McCance, M. Laboratory Methods in Food and Dairy Microbiology, 8th ed; Academic Press: London, UK, 1990.
Haynes, I.N.; Playne, M.J. Survival of probiotic cultures in low fat ice cream. Aust. J. Dairy Technol., 2002, 57(1), 10-14.
Lourens-Hattingh, A.; Viljoen, B.C. Review: Yogurt as probiotic carrier food. Int. Dairy J., 2001, 11, 1-17.
Dave, R.I.; Shah, N.P. Evaluation of media for selective enumeration of Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and bifidobacteria. J. Dairy Sci., 1996, 79(9), 1529-1536.
[] [PMID: 8899517]
Schmidt, K.A. Dairy: Ice cream. Food processing - Principles and applications; Blackwell publishing: Ames, IA, 2004, pp. 287-296.
EL-Sayed H.S. Salama, H.H.; EL-Sayed, S.M. Production of synbiotic ice cream. Int. J. Chemtech Res., 2015, 7(1), 138-147.
Salama, H.H. EL-Sayed, S. M.; Abdalla, A. M. Enhancing the nutritive values of ice milk based on dry leaves and oil of Moringa oleifera. Am. J. Food Technol., 2017, 12(2), 86-95.
Marshall, R.T.; Gov, H.D.; Hartel, R.W. Ice cream, 2003.
Arbukle, W.S. Ice cream, 4th ed; Van Nostrand Reinhold: New York, 1986.
Arndt, E.A.; Wehling, R.L. Development of hydrolyzed and hydrolyzed isomerized syrups from cheese whey ultrafiltration permeate and their utilization in ice cream. J. Food Sci., 1989, 54, 880-884.
American Public Health Association (APHA) Compendium of methods for the microbiological examination of foods 1st ed.; Marvin specked.: Washington, D.C. USA,; , 1976.
Bacteriological Analytical Manual, 9th ed; AOAC International: Arlington, VA, USA, , 2002.
Deák, T.; Timár, E. Simplified identification of aerobic spore-formers in the investigation of foods. Int. J. Food Microbiol., 1988, 6(2), 115-125.
[] [PMID: 3079466]
Simões, C.M.O.; Amoros, M.; Girre, L. Mechanism of antiviral activity of triterpenoid saponins. Phytother. Res., 1999, 13(4), 323-328.
[<323:AID-PTR448>3.0.CO;2-C] [PMID: 10404540]
SAS Statistical Analysis Systems, Version 9.2; SAS Institute Inc.: Cary, NC, USA, 2006.
Dayrit, F.M. Lauric acid is a medium-chain fatty acid, coconut oil is a medium-chain triglyceride. Philipp. J. Sci., 2014, 143, 157-166.
Ghani, N.A.A.; Channip, A.A.; Chok Hwee Hwa, P.; Ja’afar, F.; Yasin, H.M.; Usman, A. Physicochemical properties, antioxidant capacities, and metal contents of virgin coconut oil produced by wet and dry processes. Food Sci. Nutr., 2018, 6(5), 1298-1306.
[] [PMID: 30065831]
Aboulfazli, F.; Baba, A.S.; Misran, M. Effects of fermentation by Bifidobacterium bifidum on the rheology and physical properties of ice cream mixes made with cow and vegetable milks. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol., 2015, 50, 942-949.
Gomes, A.M.P.; Malcata, F.X.; Klaver, F.A.M. Growth enhancement of Bifidobacterium lactis Bo and Lactobacillus acidophilus Ki by milk hydrolyzates. J. Dairy Sci., 1998, 81(11), 2817-2825.
[] [PMID: 9839223]
Yuliana, N.; Rangga, A. Rakhmia. Manufacture of fermented coco milk-drink containing lactic acid bacteria cultures. Afr. J. Food Sci., 2010, 4, 558-562.
Granato, D.; Branco, G.F.; Cruz, A.G.; Faria, J.A.F.; Shah, N.P. Probiotic dairy products as functional foods. Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf., 2010, 9, 455-470.
Salama, H.; Hammad, Y.; Hamzawi, L.F.; Hassan, Z.M.R. Food for Better Health Proceedings of the10th Egyption Conference for Dairy Science and Technology, 2007, pp. 503-516.
Ibrahim, G.A.; Ihab, A.M.; El-Kholy, W.I. Production of two types of flavored ice cream like product. Minufiya J. Agric. Res., 2002, 27, 827-841.
Cruz, A.G.; Antunes, A.E.C.; Sousa, A.L.O.P.; Faria, J.A.F.; Saad, S.M.I. Ice-cream as a probiotic food carrier. Food Res. Int., 2009, 42, 1233-1239.
El-Shenawy, M.; Abd El-Aziz, M.; Elkholy, W.; Fouad, M.T. Probiotic ice cream made with tiger-nut (Cyperus esculentus). Extract. Am. J. Food Technol., 2016, 11(5), 204-212.
El Bakri, J.M.; Zubeir, E.M. Chemical and microbiological evaluation of plain and fruit yoghurt in khartoum state sudan. Int. J. Dairy Sci., 2009, 4(1), 1-7.
Osundahunsi, O.; Amosu, D.; Ifesan, B. Quality evaluation and acceptability of soy-yoghurt with different colours and fruit flavours. Am. J. Food Technol., 2007, 2(4), 273-280.
Hagen, M.; Narvhus, J.A. Production of ice cream containing probiotic bacteria. Milchwissenschaft, 1999, 54, 265-268.
Alamprese, C.; Foschino, R.; Rossi, M.; Pompei, C.; Savani, L. Survival of Lactobacillus johnsonii La1 and influence of its addition in retail-manufactured ice cream produced with different sugar and fat concentrations. Int. Dairy J., 2002, 12, 201-208.
Talwalkar, A.; Miller, C.W.; Kailasapathy, K.; Nguyen, M.H. Effect of packaging materials and dissolved oxygen on the survival of probiotic bacteria in yogurt. Int. Food Sci. Technol., 2004, 39(6), 605-611.
Hekmat, S.; McMahon, D.J. Survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum in ice cream for use as a probiotic food. J. Dairy Sci., 1992, 75(6), 1415-1422.
[] [PMID: 1500547]
Mashayekh, M.; Brown, R.J. Stability of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus salivarius ssp. thermophilus and 6-galactosidase activity in frozen cultured ice cream. Cult. Dairy Prod. J., 1992, 27(1), 4-8.
Sheu, T.Y.; Marshall, R.T.; Heymann, H. Improving survival of culture bacteria in frozen desserts by microentrapment. J. Dairy Sci., 1993, 76(7), 1902-1907.
[] [PMID: 8345127]
Pin-Rou, L.; Boo, C.X.; Liu, S.Q. Fermentation of coconut water by probiotic strains Lactobacillus acidophilus L10 and Lactobacillus casei L26. Ann. Microbiol. J., 2013, 63, 1441-1450.

© 2024 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy