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Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology


ISSN (Print): 1389-2010
ISSN (Online): 1873-4316

Research Article

The Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Anacardic Acid on a TNF-α - Induced Human Saphenous Vein Endothelial Cell Culture Model

Author(s): Burak Önal*, Deniz Özen, Bülent Demir, Duygu Gezen Ak, Erdinç Dursun, Caner Demir, Ahmet Gökhan Akkan and Sibel Özyazgan

Volume 21, Issue 8, 2020

Page: [710 - 719] Pages: 10

DOI: 10.2174/1389201020666191105154619

open access plus


Background and Objective: Coronary bypass operations are commonly performed for the treatment of ischemic heart diseases. Coronary artery bypass surgery with autologous human saphenous vein maintains its importance as a commonly used therapy for advanced atherosclerosis. Vascular inflammation-related intimal hyperplasia and atherosclerotic progress have major roles in the pathogenesis of saphenous vein graft disease.

Methods: In our study, we investigated the effect of anacardic acid (AA), which is a bioactive phytochemical in the shell of Anacardium occidentale, on atherosclerosis considering its inhibitory effect on NF-κB. We observed relative ICAM-1 and NF-κB mRNA levels by qRT-PCR method in a TNF-α- induced inflammation model of saphenous vein endothelial cell culture after 0.1, 0.5, 1 and 5 μM of AA were applied to the cells. In addition, protein levels of ICAM-1 and NF-κB were evaluated by immunofluorescent staining. The results were compared between different concentrations of AA, and also with the control group.

Results: It was found that 5 μM, 1 μM and 0.5 μM of AA had toxic effects, while cytotoxicity decreased when 0.1 μM of AA was applied both alone and with TNF-α. When AA was applied with TNF-α, there was a decrease and suppression in NF-κB expression compared with the TNF-α group. TNF-α-induced ICAM-1 expression was significantly reduced more in the AA-applied group than in the TNF-α group.

Conclusion: In accordance with our results, it can be said that AA has a protective role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and hence in saphenous vein graft disease.

Keywords: Coronary bypass, anacardic acid, saphenous vein, atherosclerosis, inflammation, NF-κB.

Graphical Abstract
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