Background: The increasing demand of effective pharmaceutical products directed to fight against malaria lead to the combination of at least two antimalarial drugs. This combination aims to minimize the Plasmodium falciparum resistance which is found when the most frequently used drugs are taken individually. Within this context, proguanil hydrochloride and chloroquine phosphate which have independent modes of action are taken together to prevent malaria. This paper aims to develop a fast and powerful analytical method for the simultaneous determination of proguanil hydrochloride and chloroquine phosphate in the commercial Paludrine/Avloclor dosage forms using a multi-way chromatographic calibration based on high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and multivariate curve resolution – alternating leastsquares (MCR-ALS).
Methods: A rapid and powerful analytical method based on HPLC-DAD and MCR-ALS was developed for the simultaneous quantification of proguanil hydrochloride and chloroquine phosphate in the commercial Paludrine/Avloclor antimalarial drugs. An isocratic mobile phase composed by 0.2 M ammonium acetate, acetonitrile, and methanol (40:25:35) and a flow rate of 1.2 mL min-1 were employed in the chromatographic runs with an elution time about 5 min.
Results: This approach demonstrates that chromatographic analysis may become considerably simpler and economical in terms of time, cost, and organic solvent consumption when coupled to multiway calibration models such as MCR-ALS. In fact, this multi-way chromatographic calibration based on second-order HPLC-DAD data matrices (with extremely low chromatographic resolution) and MCR-ALS allows the development of greener analytical methods for complex samples. The proposed analytical method allowed the simultaneous quantification of two antimalarial APIs present in the commercial Paludrine/Avloclor drugs with low REP values below 8% for the simultaneous determination of proguanil hydrochloride and chloroquine phosphate.
Conclusion: The proposed multi-way chromatographic strategy can be used for routine control of pharmaceutical dosage forms. It should be highlighted that MCR-ALS allowed to: (a) achieve the second- order advantage and the quantification of analytes in the presence of uncalibrated compounds such as coeluted profile measured in different magnitude of the signal in each successive chromatographic run and significant overlapping profiles and (b) separate the contribution of several components from chromatographic runs with extremely low separation of peaks through the deconvolution of the signal obtained, performing the so-called mathematical chromatography.
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