Generic placeholder image

Recent Advances in Electrical & Electronic Engineering


ISSN (Print): 2352-0965
ISSN (Online): 2352-0973

Research Article

The Effect of Sea State on the Polarization of Reflected Beidou B1 Signals

Author(s): Tingting Lyu, Shuang Sha, Min Zhang, Hao Zhang* and Thomas A. Gulliver

Volume 13, Issue 5, 2020

Page: [736 - 742] Pages: 7

DOI: 10.2174/2352096512666191019093901

Price: $65


Background: Oceanographic buoys generally employ satellites for positioning and data transmission. However, sea surface conditions can affect these signals. The Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) of small observation buoys can be improved by exploiting polarization diversity.

Methods: This paper discusses the effect of sea surface conditions on the polarization and reflection loss of Beidou B1 reflected signals for the purposes of exploiting polarization diversity. The Rayleigh roughness criterion is used to assess the roughness of the sea surface. The Fresnel reflection coefficients are derived to analyze the polarization and reflection loss of the Beidou B1 reflected signals with different sea surface states.

Results: The results obtained show that for the Beidou B1 signals, the sea surface is considered rough for most sea surface states and incident angles. For smooth sea surfaces, the Beidou B1 reflected signals are mainly Left Hand Circularly Polarized (LHCP) waves, but Right Hand Circularly Polarized (RHCP) waves dominate when the incident angles are larger than the Brewster angle. The reflected loss is between -2 dB to -3.4 dB. In rough sea surfaces and the signals propagation is dominated by diffuse reflection. The reflection loss decreases with the incident angle and there is a fluctuation when the incident angle is around 49 degrees. The specular reflection signal has a significant amplitude when the angle of incidence is large. RHCP waves are the main component of the reflected signals, and the reflection loss is relatively small which can be employed for polarization diversity or marine remote sensing.

Conclusion: polarization diversity is only useful with good sea conditions, and the corresponding gain decreases with the deterioration of the sea surface conditions.

Keywords: Beidou satellite navigation system, Rayleigh roughness criterion, reflected signal, polarization characteristics, polarization diversity, douglas sea state.

Graphical Abstract
L. Xu, and C. Wei, Electromagnetic Field and Electromagnetic Wave Theory., Science Press, 2010.
D-K. Yang, W-Q. Li, and W. Yang, "Research on BDS applications in sea wind and wave detection", J. Navig. and Position, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 97-101, 2014.
V.U. Zavorotny, K.M. Larson, and J.J. Braun, "A physical model for GPS multipath caused by land reflections: Toward bare soil moisture retrievals", IEEE J. Sel. Top. Appl. Earth Obs. Remote Sens., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 100-110, 2010.
F.G. Nievinski, and K.M. Larson, "Forward modeling of GPS multipath for near-surface reflectometry and positioning applications", GPS Solut., vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 309-322, 2014.
L. Shao, X. Zhang, S. Qiang, and W. Xin, "Property of GPS signal scattered from sea surface and preliminary experimental results", Chin. J. Radio Science, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 699-703, 2008.
W. Bo, H. Wang, Z. Zhao, and Z. Wu, "Simulation on the characteristics of the reflected GPS signals over the sea", J. GNSS, vol. 3, pp. 13-17, 2008.
D. Mei, Y. Zhao, and S. Zhang, "The analysis of the multipath model under the VHF band at sea", Tien Tzu Hsueh Pao, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 1373-1377, 2009.
R. Yang, Electromagnetic Fields and Waves., 2nd ed China Higher Education Press, 2008, pp. 225-235.
A.R. Miller, R.M. Brown, and E. Vegh, "New derivation for the rough-surface reflection coefficient and for the distribution of sea-wave elevations", IEE Proceedings , vol. 131, 1984no. 2 , pp. 114-116
W.S. Ament, "Toward a theory of reflection by a rough surface", Proceedings of the IRE, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 142-146, 1953.
D.E. Freund, N.E. Woods, and H.C. Ku, "Forward radar propagation over a rough sea surface: A numerical assessment of the Miller-brown approximation using a horizontally polarized 3-GHz line source", IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag., vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 1292-1304, 2006.
L. Jia, W. Zhang, and X. Wang, "Modeling of HF sky wave transmission loss in communication countermeasure", Computer Simulation, vol. 24, no. 8, pp. 28-31, 2007.
Q. Zhang, K. Jiang, and B. Wu, "Analysis and modeling of surface reflection loss in HF communication", Tongxin Jishu, vol. 51, no. 8, pp. 1780-1784, 2018.
S. Xie, and Y. Xue, Microwave Remote Sensing Technology and Application., Electronic Industry Press, 1987.
V.U. Zavorotny, and A.G. Voronovich, "Scattering of GPS signals from the ocean with wind remote sensing application", IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 951-964, 2000.
D. Yang, and Q. Zhang, GNSS Reflection Signal Processing: Fundamentals and Applications., Electronic Industry Press, 2012.
Y. Xu, and Y. Huang, "Advanced technology in GIS/GPS based transportation systems", Recent Pat. Mech. Eng., vol. 10, no. 1, 2017.
P. Sobieski, A. Guissard, and C. Baufays, "Sea surface scattering calculations in maritime satellite communications", IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 41, no. 10, pp. 1525-1533, 1993.
"Básaca-Preciado", Luis C, Sergiyenko O Y, Rodríguez-Quinonez, Julio C, et al. “Optical 3D laser measurement system for navigation of autonomous mobile robot., vol.,, vol. Vol 54. , Optics and Lasers in Engineering, 2014, . pp. 159-169.
X.M. Garcia-Cruz, O.Y. Sergiyenko, and V. Tyrsa, "Optimization of 3D laser scanning speed by use of combined variable step", Opt. Lasers Eng., vol. 54, pp. 141-151, 2014.
L. Lindner, O. Sergiyenko, and M. Rivas-Lopez, "Machine vision system errors for unmanned aerial vehicle navigation", Proc. of the IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, 2017pp. 1615-1620
J.C. Rodríguez-Quiñonez, O. Sergiyenko, and W. Flores-Fuentes, "Improve a 3D distance measurement accuracy in stereo vision systems using optimization methods’ approach", Opto-Electron. Rev., vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 24-32, 2017.

Rights & Permissions Print Export Cite as
© 2022 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy