Background: Species of crocodiles and cockroaches can withstand high radiation, reside in unsanitary conditions, thrive on germ-infested feed, and are exposed to heavy metals, yet they are not reported to develop cancer. It has been postulated that such species have mechanisms to defend themselves against developing cancer. Here, selected species have been tested for potential cytotoxicity against selected cancer cell lines.
Methods: In this study, various species of vertebrates and invertebrates were procured including Columba livia, Gallus gallus domesticus, Varanus salvator, Cuora kamamora amboinensis, Reticulatus malayanus, Oreochromis mossambicus, Rattus rattus, American bullfrog, Donax sp., Polymesoda coaxans, Tenebrio molitor, Lumbricus terrestris, Blatta lateralis, Grammostola rosea, and Penaeus monodon. Species were dissected and their organ lysates/sera/haemolymph were prepared. Cytotoxicity assays were performed using Prostate Cancer cells (PC3), Henrietta Lacks cervical adenocarcinoma cells (HeLa) and human breast adenocarcinoma cells (MCF7) as well as human keratinized skin cells (Hacat), by measuring lactate dehydrogenase release as an indicator for cell death. Growth inhibition assays were performed to determine the effects on cancer cell proliferation. Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was performed for molecular identification.
Results: The results revealed that body lysates of Polymesoda coaxans demonstrated more than 99% growth inhibition of all cancer cell lines tested but not on normal Hacat cells. More importantly, the serum of M. reticulatus abolished growth and produced cytotoxicity. Hence these samples were subjected to Liquid Chromatography- Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), which detected 81 small molecules and putatively identified 20 molecules when matched against the METLIN database. Out of 1094 peptides, 21 peptides were identified, while 1074 peptides were categorized as novel peptides. Based on properties such as peptide amino acid composition, binary profile, dipeptide composition and pseudo-amino acid composition, 306 potential peptides were identified.
Conclusion: To our knowledge, here for the first time, we report a comprehensive analysis of sera exhibiting cytotoxicity against cancer cell lines tested and identified several molecules using LC-MS/MS.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.29210] [PMID: 25220842]
[http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11994] [PMID: 27642012]
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2014.12.008] [PMID: 25565328]
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2015.13134] [PMID: 26447779]
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12253-018-0415-7] [PMID: 29796873]
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/md10112596] [PMID: 23203280]
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbi.2010.04.012] [PMID: 20433817]
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0003702816654164] [PMID: 27354402]
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1525-1497.2004.30052.x] [PMID: 15693930]
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871520617666170327153735] [PMID: 28356021]