Generic placeholder image

Current Analytical Chemistry

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 1573-4110
ISSN (Online): 1875-6727

Research Article

Simultaneous Analysis of Vanillin and Coumarin in Mangrove Plants and Commercial Food Products Using UPLC-ESI-MS/MS

Author(s): Nilesh Lakshman Dahibhate, Devendra Kumar and Kundan Kumar*

Volume 16 , Issue 6 , 2020

Page: [768 - 777] Pages: 10

DOI: 10.2174/1573411015666190828185647

Price: $65

Abstract

Background: Vanillin is a key constituent of natural vanilla. Usage of natural vanilla is affected due to its high price and limited supply, which leads to the use of artificial vanilla flavoring substances. Coumarin is a commonly encountered adulterant in beverage, food, and cosmetics as a flavoring and fragrance enhancer. However, coumarin has been banned for use as a food additive due to its toxic effects. To comply with the quality of vanillin in food and food products needs to be ensured.

Methods: A rapid, simple and selective analytical method has been developed and validated using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for quantitative analysis of vanillin and coumarin. We also optimized fragmentation pattern of these metabolites while increasing collision energy to elucidate its structural information. The suitability and robustness of the method was checked by Zorbax Eclipse XDB C8 column (4.6 × 150 mm, 5 μm) using mobile phase comprising of methanol (A) and water with 0.1% formic acid (B) (90:10) with a flow rate 200 μL/min. The separation was achieved within 4.2 min with total run time of 5.0 min. The analysis was done by multiple reaction monitoring using 153/93 and 147/91 pair transition in positive electrospray ionization for vanillin and coumarin respectively.

Results: The lower limit of quantification of vanillin and coumarin was 0.39 ng/mL and 3.9 ng/mL respectively. The intra and inter-day precisions for vanillin and coumarin were lower than 8.87 and 8.62 whereas, accuracy was within ± 2.13 and ± 1.53 respectively. The vanillin and coumarin was found to be stable under the examined conditions. This method was successfully applied for quantification of vanillin and coumarin in mangrove species and commercial food products.

Conclusion: The described method and fragmentation pattern could be useful to direct confirmation and quality monitoring of a commercial food products assimilated with vanillin.

Keywords: Commercial food products, coumarin, fragmentation, mangrove, UPLC-MS/MS, vanillin.

Graphical Abstract
[1]
Gallage, N.J.; Hansen, E.H.; Kannangara, R.; Olsen, C.E.; Motawia, M.S.; Jørgensen, K.; Holme, I.; Hebelstrup, K.; Grisoni, M.; Møller, B.L. Vanillin formation from ferulic acid in Vanilla planifolia is catalysed by a single enzyme. Nat. Commun., 2014, 5, 4037.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms5037] [PMID: 24941968]
[2]
Dinelli, G.; Carretero, A.S.; Di Silvestro, R.; Marotti, I.; Fu, S.; Benedettelli, S.; Ghiselli, L.; Gutiérrez, A.F. Determination of phenolic compounds in modern and old varieties of durum wheat using liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. J. Chromatogr. A, 2009, 1216(43), 7229-7240.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2009.08.041] [PMID: 19740468]
[3]
Krüsemann, E.J.; Visser, W.F.; Cremers, J.W.; Pennings, J.; Talhout, R. Identification of flavour additives in tobacco products to develop a flavour library. Tob. Control, 2018, 27(1), 105-111..
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2016-052961] [PMID: 28190004]
[4]
Laghari, A.H.; Memon, S.; Nelofar, A.; Khan, K.M.; Yasmin, A. Determination of free phenolic acids and antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts obtained from fruits and leaves of Chenopodium album. Food Chem., 2011, 126(4), 1850-1855..
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.11.165] [PMID: 25213967]
[5]
Goodner, K.L.; Jella, P.; Rouseff, R.L. Determination of vanillin in orange, grapefruit, tangerine, lemon, and lime juices using GC-olfactometry and GC-MS/MS. J. Agric. Food Chem., 2000, 48(7), 2882-2886.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf990561d] [PMID: 10898641]
[6]
Sobolev, V.S. Vanillin content in boiled peanuts. J. Agric. Food Chem., 2001, 49(8), 3725-3727.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf010118e] [PMID: 11513655]
[7]
Jadhav, D.; Rekha, B.N.; Gogate, P.R.; Rathod, V.K. Extraction of vanillin from vanilla pods: A comparison study of conventional soxhlet and ultrasound assisted extraction. J. Food Eng., 2009, 93, 421-426.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2009.02.007]
[8]
Ngarmsak, M.; Delaquis, P.; Toivonen, P.; Ngarmsak, T.; Ooraikul, B.; Mazza, G. Antimicrobial activity of vanillin against spoilage microorganisms in stored fresh-cut mangoes. J. Food Prot., 2006, 69(7), 1724-1727.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-69.7.1724] [PMID: 16865911]
[9]
Si, X.; Quan, X. Prevention of multi-species wastewater biofilm formation using vanillin and EPS disruptors through non-microbicidal mechanisms. Int. Biodeterior. Biodegradation, 2017, 116, 211-218.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2016.11.009]
[10]
Durant, S.; Karran, P. Vanillins--a novel family of DNA-PK inhibitors. Nucleic Acids Res., 2003, 31(19), 5501-5512.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkg753] [PMID: 14500812]
[11]
Elsherbiny, N.M.; Younis, N.N.; Shaheen, M.A.; Elseweidy, M.M. The synergistic effect between vanillin and doxorubicin in ehrlich ascites carcinoma solid tumor and MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line. Pathol. Res. Pract., 2016, 212(9), 767-777.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prp.2016.06.004] [PMID: 27493101]
[12]
Chen, Y.; Dou, C.; Yi, J.; Tang, R.; Yu, T.; Zhou, L.; Luo, W.; Liang, M.; Yin, X.; Li, J.; Kang, F.; Zhao, Y.; Dong, S. Inhibitory effect of vanillin on RANKL-induced osteoclast formation and function through activating mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis signaling pathway. Life Sci., 2018, 208, 305-314.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2018.07.048] [PMID: 30055205]
[13]
Sinha, A.K.; Sharma, U.K.; Sharma, N. A comprehensive review on vanilla flavor: extraction, isolation and quantification of vanillin and others constituents. Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr., 2008, 59(4), 299-326.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09687630701539350] [PMID: 17886091]
[14]
Sproll, C.; Ruge, W.; Andlauer, C.; Godelmann, R.; Lachenmeier, D.W. HPLC analysis and safety assessment of coumarin in foods. Food Chem., 2008, 109(2), 462-469.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.12.068] [PMID: 26003373]
[15]
Boyce, M.C.; Haddad, P.R.; Sostaric, T. Determination of flavour components in natural vanilla extracts and synthetic flavourings by mixed micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography. Anal. Chim. Acta, 2003, 485, 179-186.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0003-2670(03)00413-6]
[16]
Hingse, S.S.; Digole, S.B.; Annapure, U.S. Method development for simultaneous detection of ferulic acid and vanillin using high-performance thin layer chromatography. J. Anal. Sci. Technol., 2014, 5, 21.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40543-014-0021-6]
[17]
Rojas, L.B.; Quideau, S.; Pardon, P.; Charrouf, Z. Colorimetric evaluation of phenolic content and GC-MS characterization of phenolic composition of alimentary and cosmetic argan oil and press cake. J. Agric. Food Chem., 2005, 53(23), 9122-9127.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf051082j] [PMID: 16277411]
[18]
Huang, L.; Hou, K.; Jia, X.; Pan, H.; Du, M. Preparation of novel silver nanoplates/graphene composite and their application in vanillin electrochemical detection. Mater. Sci. Eng. C, 2014, 38, 39-45.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2014.01.037] [PMID: 24656350]
[19]
Bettazzi, F.; Palchetti, I.; Sisalli, S.; Mascini, M. A disposable electrochemical sensor for vanillin detection. Anal. Chim. Acta, 2006, 555, 134-138.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2005.08.069]
[20]
Ali, L.; Perfetti, G.; Diachenko, G. Rapid method for the determination of coumarin, vanillin, and ethyl vanillin in vanilla extract by reversed-phase liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. J. AOAC Int., 2008, 91(2), 383-386.
[PMID: 18476352]
[21]
de Jager, L.S.; Perfetti, G.A.; Diachenko, G.W. Determination of coumarin, vanillin, and ethyl vanillin in vanilla extract products: liquid chromatography mass spectrometry method development and validation studies. J. Chromatogr. A, 2007, 1145(1-2), 83-88.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2007.01.039] [PMID: 17250844]
[22]
Shen, Y.; Han, C.; Liu, B.; Lin, Z.; Zhou, X.; Wang, C.; Zhu, Z. Determination of vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and coumarin in infant formula by liquid chromatography-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry. J. Dairy Sci., 2014, 97(2), 679-686.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2013-7308] [PMID: 24359823]
[23]
Bononi, M.; Quaglia, G.; Tateo, F. Easy extraction method to evaluate delta13C vanillin by liquid chromatography-isotopic ratio mass spectrometry in chocolate bars and chocolate snack foods. J. Agric. Food Chem., 2015, 63(19), 4777-4781.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.5b02136] [PMID: 25965784]
[24]
Saddhe, A.A.; Jamdade, R.A.; Kumar, K. Assessment of mangroves from Goa, west coast India using DNA barcode. Springerplus, 2016, 5(1), 1554.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40064-016-3191-4] [PMID: 27652127]
[25]
Dahibhate, N.L.; Saddhe, A.A.; Kumar, K. Mangrove plants as a source of bioactive compounds: A review. Nat. Prod. J., 2018, 8, 1.
[http://dx.doi.org/102174/2210315508666180910125328]
[26]
Dahibhate, N.L.; Roy, U.; Kumar, K. Phytochemical screening, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of selected mangrove species. Curr. Bioact. Compd., 2018, 14, 1.
[http://dx.doi.org/102174/1573407214666180808121118]
[27]
Saddhe, A.A.; Jamdade, R.A.; Kumar, K. Evaluation of multilocus marker efficacy for delineating mangrove species of West Coast India. PLoS One, 2017, 12(8)e0183245
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0183245] [PMID: 28817640]
[28]
International Conference on Harmonization (ICH). Validation of Analytical Procedures 1997.
[29]
Sharma, P.; Kumar, D.; Mutnuri, S. UPLC-MS/MS method validation of ciprofloxacin in human urine: Application to biodegradability study in microbial fuel cell. Biomed. Chromatogr., 2019, 33(2) e4392
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bmc.4392] [PMID: 30239025]
[30]
Johnson, A.R.; Carlson, E.E. Collision-induced dissociation mass spectrometry: a powerful tool for natural product structure elucidation. Anal. Chem., 2015, 87(21), 10668-10678..
[http://dx.doi.org//10.1021/acs.analchem.5b01543] [PMID: 26132379]

Rights & Permissions Print Export Cite as
© 2022 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy