Generic placeholder image

Current Psychiatry Research and Reviews


ISSN (Print): 2666-0822
ISSN (Online): 2666-0830

Research Article

Pure Emotion-loaded Materials in the International Affective Digitized Sounds (IADS): A Study on Intensity Ratings in Chinese University Students

Author(s): Jiawei Wang, Yanli Jia, Xu Shao, Chu Wang and Wei Wang*

Volume 15, Issue 3, 2019

Page: [199 - 208] Pages: 10

DOI: 10.2174/1573400515666190822110933

Price: $65


Background: Materials loaded with pure emotion are essential for basic and clinical research on sounds. The International Affective Digitized Sounds (IADS) is one of the widely-used emotional tools, but its materials are not clearly labeled with specific emotions. We have hypothesized that the IADS contains pure vectors of at least disgust, erotica (or erotism), fear, happiness, sadness and neutral emotions.

Methods: We therefore selected 48 IADS sounds with saturate emotions, and invited 271 male and 353 female university students to rate the intensity of the emotions conveyed in each sound. The ratings were then analyzed with the exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses.

Results: Five factors were observed, namely: erotica, fear-sadness, happiness, neutrality, and disgust. Later, as two facets, sounds of fear-sadness were separated. Thirty sounds under six facets were finally retained with good model-fit indices and satisfactory factor internal reliabilities. Moreover, males scored significantly higher on erotica than females did.

Conclusion: Our study purified a series of emotion-loaded IADS sounds, which might help clarify the pure effects of sound emotion in future research and clinical management of affective disorders.

Keywords: Confirmatory factor analysis, exploratory factor analysis, International Affective Digitized Sounds (IADS), pure emotion vector, disgust, erotica, fear, happiness, sadness, neutral emotions.

Graphical Abstract
Gerrards‐Hesse A, Spies K, Hesse FW. Experimental inductions of emotional states and their effectiveness: a review. Br J Psychol 1994; 85(1): 55-78.
Mauss IB, Robinson MD. Measures of emotion: a review. Cogn Emotion 2009; 23(2): 209-37.
Lang PJ, Bradley MM, Cuthbert BN. International affective picture system (IAPS): affective ratings of pictures and instruction manual. In: Technical Report A-8. Gainesville: University of Florida 2008.
Bradley MM, Lang PJ. The International Affective Digitized Sounds (2nd Edition; IADS-2): Affective ratings of sounds and instruction manual. In: Technical report B-3. Gainesville: University of Florida 2007.
Gross JJ, Levenson RW. Emotion elicitation using films. Cogn Emotion 1995; 9(1): 87-108.
Libkuman TM, Otani H, Kern R, Viger SG, Novak N. Multidimensional normative ratings for the international affective picture system. Behav Res Methods 2007; 39(2): 326-34.
Mikels JA, Fredrickson BL, Larkin GR, Lindberg CM, Maglio SJ, Reuter-Lorenz PA. Emotional category data on images from the International Affective Picture System. Behav Res Methods 2005; 37(4): 626-30.
Matsumoto D, Ekman P. Japanese and Caucasian facial expressions of emotion (JACFEE). San Francisco: San Francisco State University 1988.
Rojahn J, Gerhards F, Matlock ST, Kroeger TL. Reliability and validity studies of the facial discrimination task for emotion research. Psychiatry Res 2000; 95(2): 169-81.
Bradley MM, Codispoti M, Cuthbert BN, Lang PJ. Emotion and motivation I: defensive and appetitive reactions in picture processing. Emotion 2001; 1(3): 276-98.
Ekman P, Levenson RW, Friesen WV. Autonomic nervous system activity distinguishes among emotions. Science 1983; 221(4616): 1208-10.
Phan KL, Wager T, Taylor SF, Liberzon I. Functional neuroanatomy of emotion: a meta-analysis of emotion activation studies in PET and fMRI. Neuroimage 2002; 16(2): 331-48.
Nummenmaa L, Saarimaki H. Emotions as discrete patterns of systemic activity. Neurosci Lett 2019; 693: 3-8.
Stevenson RA, James TW. Affective auditory stimuli: characterization of the International Affective Digitized Sounds (IADS) by discrete emotional categories. Behav Res Methods 2008; 40(1): 315-21.
Johnsen BH, Thayer JF, Hugdahl K. Affective judgment of the Ekman faces: a dimensional approach. J Psychophysiol 1995; 9(3): 193-202.
Matsumoto D. American-Japanese cultural differences in judgements of expression intensity and subjective experience. Cogn Emotion 1999; 13(2): 201-18.
Neta M, Whalen PJ. The primacy of negative interpretations when resolving the valence of ambiguous facial expressions. Psychol Sci 2010; 21(7): 901-7.
Aubé W, Angulo-Perkins A, Peretz I, Concha L, Armony JL. Fear across the senses: brain responses to music, vocalizations and facial expressions. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 2015; 10(3): 399-407.
Lévêque Y, Teyssier P, Bouchet P, Bigand E, Caclin A, Tillmann B. Musical emotions in congenital amusia: impaired recognition, but preserved emotional intensity. Neuropsychology 2018; 32(7): 880-94.
Ekman P, Cordaro D. What is meant by calling emotions basic. Emot Rev 2011; 3(4): 364-70.
Ekman P, Friesen WV, O’Sullivan M, et al. Universals and cultural differences in the judgments of facial expressions of emotion. J Pers Soc Psychol 1987; 53(4): 712-7.
Mishra MV, Ray SB, Srinivasan N. Cross-cultural emotion recognition and evaluation of Radboud faces database with an Indian sample. PLoS One 2018; 13(10)e0203959
Rosellini AJ, Brown TA. The NEO five-factor inventory: latent structure and relationships with dimensions of anxiety and depressive disorders in a large clinical sample. Assessment 2011; 18(1): 27-38.
Simancas-Pallares M, Arrieta KM, Arévalo LL. Construct validity and internal consistency of three factor structures and two scoring methods of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. Biomedica 2017; 37(3): 308-14.
Huang J, Fan J, He W, et al. Could intensity ratings of Matsumoto and Ekman’s JACFEE pictures delineate basic emotions? A principal component analysis in Chinese university students. Pers Individ Dif 2009; 46(3): 331-5.
Xu Z, Zhu R, Shen C, et al. Selecting pure-emotion materials from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) by Chinese university students: A study based on intensity-ratings only. Heliyon 2017; 3(8)e00389
Shen C, Wang M, Ding T, et al. Basic emotions expressed in music: factor analyses on intensity ratings by non-musical professional Chinese university students. Psychol Res Behav Manag 2018; 11: 617-29.
McClure EB. A meta-analytic review of sex differences in facial expression processing and their development in infants, children, and adolescents. Psychol Bull 2000; 126(3): 424-53.
Aluja A, Rossier J, Blanch Á, Blanco E, Martí-Guiu M, Balada F. Personality effects and sex differences on the international affective picture system (IAPS): A Spanish and Swiss study. Pers Individ Dif 2015; 77: 143-8.
Fujisawa TX, Shinohara K. Sex differences in the recognition of emotional prosody in late childhood and adolescence. J Physiol Sci 2011; 61(5): 429-35.
Dubois SL. Examining the eros in erotica: erotic thoughts, emotion and sexual experience between genders. Diss Abstr Int B Sci Eng 2003; 64(2-B): 960.
Pernet CR, Belin P, Jones A. Behavioral evidence of a dissociation between voice gender categorization and phoneme categorization using auditory morphed stimuli. Front Psychol 2013; 4: 1018.
Jiang Y, Costello P, Fang F, Huang M, He S. A gender and sexual orientation-dependent spatial attentional effect of invisible images. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2006; 103(45): 17048-52.
Comrey AL, Lee HB. A first course in factor analysis. 2nd ed. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum 1992.
Cortina JM, Green JP, Keeler KR, Vandenberg RJ. Degrees of freedom in SEM: are we testing the models that we claim to test? Organ Res Methods 2016; 20(3): 350-78.
Hu L, Bentler PM. Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Struct Equ Modeling 1999; 6(1): 1-55.
McNeish D. Thanks coffecient alpha, we will take it from here. Psychol Methods 2018; 23(3): 412-33.
Cordaro DT, Keltner D, Tshering S, Wangchuk D, Flynn LM. The voice conveys emotion in ten globalized cultures and one remote village in Bhutan. Emotion 2016; 16(1): 117-28.
Batson MA, Beer AL, Seitz AR, Watanabe T. Spatial shifts of audio-visual interactions by perceptual learning are specific to the trained orientation and eye. Seeing Perceiving 2011; 24(6): 579-94.
Hoffmann H, Kessler H, Eppel T, Rukavina S, Traue HC. Expression intensity, gender and facial emotion recognition: women recognize only subtle facial emotions better than men. Acta Psychol 2010; 135(3): 278-83.
Bradley MM, Lang PJ. Affective reactions to acoustic stimuli. Psychophysiology 2000; 37(2): 204-15.
Jacob GA, Arntz A, Domes G, Reiss N, Siep N. Positive erotic picture stimuli for emotion research in heterosexual females. Psychiatry Res 2011; 190(2-3): 348-51.
Hernández-González M, Amezcua Gutiérrez C, Martin AS, Sánchez KR, Guevara MA. Sexual arousal decreases the functional synchronization between cortical areas in young men. J Sex Marital Ther 2013; 39(3): 264-79.
Oliver TL, Meana M, Snyder JS. Sex differences in concordance rates between auditory event-related potentials and subjective sexual arousal. Psychophysiology 2016; 53(8): 1272-81.
Stoléru S, Fonteille V, Cornélis C, Joyal C, Moulier V. Functional neuroimaging studies of sexual arousal and orgasm in healthy men and women: a review and meta-analysis. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2012; 36(6): 1481-509.
Coan JA, Allen JJ. Varieties of emotional experience during voluntary emotional facial expressions. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2003; 1000(1): 375-9.
Blair RJR. A cognitive developmental approach to mortality: investigating the psychopath. Cognition 1995; 57(1): 1-29.
Turpin G. Effects of stimulus intensity on autonomic responding: the problem of differentiating orienting and defense reflexes. Psychophysiology 1986; 23(1): 1-14.
Kreibig SD, Wilhelm FH, Roth WT, Gross JJ. Cardiovascular, electrodermal, and respiratory response patterns to fear- and sadness-inducing films. Psychophysiology 2007; 44(5): 787-806.
Anderson AK, Spencer DD, Fulbright RK, Phelps EA. Contribution of the anteromedial temporal lobes to the evaluation of facial emotion. Neuropsychology 2000; 14(4): 526-36.
Adolphs R, Tranel D, Damasio H. Emotion recognition from faces and prosody following temporal lobectomy. Neuropsychology 2001; 15(3): 396-404.
Morris JS, Frith CD, Perrett DI, et al. A differential neural response in the human amygdala to fearful and happy facial expressions. Nature 1996; 383(6603): 812-5.
Hamani C, Mayberg H, Stone S, Laxton A, Haber S, Lozano AM. The subcallosal cingulate gyrus in the context of major depression. Biol Psychiatry 2011; 69(4): 301-8.
Yoder C. Little Book of Trauma Healing: When Violence Striked and Community Security is Threatened. New York: Skyhorse Publishing, Inc 2015.
Coulson M. Attributing emotion to static body postures: recognition accuracy, confusions, and viewpoint dependence. J Nonverbal Behav 2004; 28(2): 117-39.
Bylsma L, Vingerhoets AJJM, Rottenberg J. When is crying cathartic? An international study. J Soc Clin Psychol 2008; 27(10): 1165-87.
Algoe SB, Haidt J. Witnessing excellence in action: the ‘other-praising’ emotions of elevation, gratitude, and admiration. J Posit Psychol 2009; 4(2): 105-27.
Sherman A, Sweeny TD, Grabowecky M, Suzuki S. Laughter exaggerates happy and sad faces depending on visual context. Psychon Bull Rev 2012; 19(2): 163-9.
Van Dessel P, Vogt J. When does hearing laughter draw attention to happy faces? Task relevance determines the influence of a crossmodal affective context on emotional attention. Front Hum Neurosci 2012; 6(6): 294.
Mohn C, Argstatter H, Wilker F-W. Perception of six basic emotions in music. Psychol Music 2011; 39(4): 503-17.
Olatunji BO, Sawchuk CN. Disgust: characteristic features, social manifestations, and clinical implications. J Soc Clin Psychol 2005; 24(7): 932-62.
Cisler JM, Olatunji BO, Lohr JM. Disgust sensitivity and emotion regulation potentiate the effect of disgust propensity on spider fear, blood-injection-injury fear, and contamination fear. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 2009; 40(2): 219-29.
Troop NA, Murphy F, Bramon E, Treasure JL. Disgust sensitivity in eating disorders: a preliminary investigation. Int J Eat Disord 2000; 27(4): 446-51.
Lewis M, Haviland-Jones JM, Barrett LF, Eds. Handbook of emotions. New York: The Guildford Press 2010.
Rozin P, Lowery L, Ebert R. Varieties of disgust faces and the structure of disgust. J Pers Soc Psychol 1994; 66(5): 870-81.
Yu JF, Lee KC, Hong HH, et al. Human amygdala activation by the sound produced during dental treatment: a fMRI study. Noise Health 2015; 17(78): 337-42.
Schröder A, Vulink N, Denys D. Misophonia: diagnostic criteria for a new psychiatric disorder. PLoS One 2013; 8(1)e54706

Rights & Permissions Print Cite
© 2024 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy