Pregnancy Disorders and Perinatal Outcomes

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Pregnancy Disorders and Perinatal Outcomes offers readers insights into knowledge related to maternal habits or disorders that could affect fetal development and lead to disability later in childhood ...
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Embryo Implantation Disorders

Pp. 3-19 (17)

DOI: 10.2174/978160805372811201010003

Author(s): Mohan Singh, Parvesh Chaudhry, Eric Asselin


Embryo implantation is a complex process; primary step in implantation is the initiation of dialogue between free floating blastocyst and the receptive endometrium. This is followed by a stable adhesion of the blastocyst anchors to the endometrial basal lamina and stromal extracellular matrix. The last step is invasion of the embryo through the luminal epithelium and its basal lamina into the uterine stroma. Successful embryo implantation depends up on number of factors like steroid hormones (progesterone, estrogen), Cyclooxygenases, prostaglandins, cytokines, growth factors, transcription factors (HOXA-10 and HOXA-11), and adhesion molecules (integrins, selectins, cadherins, mucins) and receptive endometrium. Importantly, there is timely regulation of these factors and their cross talk which mediates the implantation process. Blastocyst is unable to implant successfully if there is deregulation in any of these factors leading to pregnancy loss. In this chapter we reviewed the information available till date to provide possible causes of implantation failure and its positive outcomes.


Implantation, endometrial receptivity, growth factors, cytokines, hormones, adhesion molecules.