Conjugated polyelectrolytes (CPEs) have attracted much attention as an emerging sensory material because of their meritorious
signal amplification, convenient optical detection, readily tunable properties, and easy fabrication. This review paper summarizes the
advances in synthesis of conjugated polyelectrolytes (such as polyfluorene, poly(para-phenylene ethynylene), poly(para-phenylene),
poly(para-phenylene vinylene) and polythiophene, etc.) and their application in biomolecule detection. Additionally, new strategies to
modify and optimize CPEs properties for specific applications are provided.