Diagnostic Technologies in Ophthalmology

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This E-book provides the reader with a detailed up-to-date review of diagnostic technologies and their role in clinical practice. Chapters are dedicated specifically to describe the role of current ...
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Microbiology, Virology and Histopathological Sampling and Diagnosis

Pp. 50-90 (41)

Samer Hamada and Saaeha Rauz


Ocular samples include: ocular cells or tissue (conjunctiva, cornea, retina, or orbital tissue), bio-fluids such as tears, aqueous or vitreous, therapeutic or cosmetic contact lenses, implanted devices (intraocular lenses, corneal rings), or transplanted tissue (e.g. Infected corneal graft tissue). Sampling extends beyond the careful collection of ocular material to involve sample storage and transfer. Reliable results require avoiding sample contamination at any stage of sampling, storage, and processing. In order to aid the laboratory scientist to provide an accurate interpretation of the investigations, it is extremely important to give details of all relevant clinical history, other related medical conditions, clinical differential diagnosis, and in some cases demographical details such as race, birth place and current postcode. This chapter will provide a précis of common sample collection in ophthalmology and an overview of culture-dependent and independent techniques including immunohistochemistry and molecular biological techniques used for ophthalmological diagnosis.


Laboratory diagnosis, sampling, tears, aqueous humour, vitreous humour, sampling, culture, immunohistochemistry, molecular biology, gram stain, cytology, microscopy, histopathology, histology, microbiology, virology, biopsy.


Academic Unit of Ophthalmology, School of Immunity & Infection, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, United Kingdom