Despite the great advances made in the diagnosis and management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), HCC still
remains as the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality, with approximately 695,000 deaths per year. Seventy-eight
percent of new cases are found in Asia, especially China, Taiwan and Hong Kong, while HCC incidence has been increasing
in the United States and Europe over the past decade. Although curative therapies are available for early stage HCC,
however, due to late diagnosis and the presence of underlying cirrhosis, most patients present medically with intermediate
or advanced HCC, for whom curative therapies become less feasible. Potential new biomarkers have been uncovered that
may allow for the early detection of HCC and provide accurate diagnosis to ensure the appropriate treatment is used.
Additionally much work has been done in translating research into therapies and allowing for more personalized
management of HCC. Because the majority of HCC cases are found in Asia-Pacific, this review is focused on the current
management of HCC, diagnostic, treatment and theragnostic tools stemming from the Asia-Pacific region. Finally, we
conclude with a discussion on the recent fusion of therapeutics and diagnostics medicine in the form of theragnostics, the
need for companion diagnostic and treatment development for HCC, as well as the lessons learned in the Asia-Pacific region.