In recent years, a growing interest has been dedicated to the study of the endocannabinoid system. The isolation
of Cannabis sativa main psychotropic compound, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), has led to the discovery of an atypical
neurotransmission system that modulates the release of other neurotransmitters and participates in many biological
processes, including the cascade of inflammatory responses. In this context, cannabinoids have been studied for their
possible therapeutic properties in neuroinflammatory diseases. In this review, historic and biochemical aspects of
cannabinoids are discussed, as well as their function as modulators of inflammatory processes and therapeutic
perspectives for neurodegenerative disorders, particularly, multiple sclerosis.