Preclinical Atherosclerosis, Global Cardiovascular Risk and Cardiovascular Events

Indexed in: Book Citation Index, Science Edition (BKCI-S), Web of Science, Scopus, EBSCO.

The simple assessment of atherosclerotic risk factors is not an accurate tool to predict the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adults without past history of atherosclerotic disease. ...
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Risk Factors and Atherosclerotic Disease

Pp. 7-21 (15)

S. Novo, G.R. Amoroso, F. Bonura, P. Carità, E. Corrado and G. Novo


In healthy subjects, the Risk Factors (RF) are conditions linked casually to atherosclerosis. They are related in a logarithmic way to the occurrence of CVE. The atherosclerotic RF can be divided into traditional and emerging. The traditional and “modifiable” RF include: dislipidemia, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, smoking, obesity, sedentary, stress, alcohol and diet. Diabetes mellitus is currently considered a “CHD equivalent”. The emerging RF (studied only for a few years) include: Metabolic Syndrome (MS) (that is characterized by the presence of various metabolic disorders at the same time in the same subject), biohumoral markers of systemic inflammation, microalbuminuria and LP (a).


Dislipidemia, smoking, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, lifestyle, obesity, stress, alcohol. Family history, aging, gender. Metabolic syndrome, inflammation, homocysteine, microalbuminuria, lipoprotein (a), infections.


Department of Internal Medicine and Cardiovascular Diseases, University of Palermo – Italy