This review summarizes recent research on biomarkers of tissue remodeling in different body fluids of patients suffering with pulmonary diseases. In particular we focus on elastin breakdown products, matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases in syndromes such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary hypertension, acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome and cystic fibrosis. Data from both preclinical disease models as well as clinical evaluation of the aforementioned biomarkers will be examined.
Keywords: Biomarker, pulmonary disease, desmosine, matrix metalloproteinase-2, -9, -12, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-4
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