The identification of substances that can promote the resolution of inflammation in a way that is homeostatic, modulatory,
efficient, and well-tolerated by the body is of fundamental importance. Traditional medicines have long provided front-line
pharmacotherapy for many millions of people worldwide. Medicinal extracts are a rich source of therapeutic leads for the pharmaceutical
industry. The use of medicinal plant therapies to treat chronic illness, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and inflammatory bowel
disease (IBD), is thus widespread and on the rise.The aim of this review is to present recent progress in clinical anti-inflammatory studies
of plant extracts and compound leads such as green tea polyphenols, curcumin, resveratrol, boswellic acid, and cucurbitacins, among
others, against chronic inflammatory diseases, mainly RA and IBD. In this context, the present paper also highlights the most promising
experimental data on those plant extracts and pure compounds active in animal models of the aforementioned diseases.