Targeting DNA G-Quadruplex Structures with Peptide Nucleic Acids

Author(s): Igor G. Panyutin, Mykola I. Onyshchenko, Ethan A. Englund, Daniel H. Appella, Ronald D. Neumann

Journal Name: Current Pharmaceutical Design

Volume 18 , Issue 14 , 2012

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Regulation of genetic functions based on targeting DNA or RNA sequences with complementary oligonucleotides is especially attractive in the post-genome era. Oligonucleotides can be rationally designed to bind their targets based on simple nucleic acid base pairing rules. However, the use of natural DNA and RNA oligonucleotides as targeting probes can cause numerous off-target effects. In addition, natural nucleic acids are prone to degradation in vivo by various nucleases. To address these problems, nucleic acid mimics such as peptide nucleic acids (PNA) have been developed. They are more stable, show less off-target effects, and, in general, have better binding affinity to their targets. However, their high affinity to DNA can reduce their sequence-specificity. The formation of alternative DNA secondary structures, such as the G-quadruplex, provides an extra level of specificity as targets for PNA oligomers. PNA probes can target the loops of G-quadruplex, invade the core by forming PNA-DNA guanine-tetrads, or bind to the open bases on the complementary cytosine-rich strand. Not only could the development of such G-quadruplex-specific probes allow regulation of gene expression, but it will also provide a means to clarify the biological roles G-quadruplex structures may possess.

Keywords: Peptide Nucleic Acids, G-quadruplex, gene expression regulation, guanines, Oligonucleotides, cytosine-rich strand, charge-charge interactions, rigidification, antigene, purine bases

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Article Details

Year: 2012
Published on: 15 March, 2012
Page: [1984 - 1991]
Pages: 8
DOI: 10.2174/138161212799958440
Price: $65

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