Electrochromic materials (ECMs) change their colors when an appropriate voltage is applied. We have discussed various conceptual and practical electrochromic materials beyond the range of classical conducting polymers and inorganic compounds. The advantages and drawbacks of examples have also been discussed in detail. These materials provide a new way to realize low-power consumption multicolor display. For future consideration, waterprocessable electrochromic materials may be popularized worldwide in the next decade.
Keywords: Color switching, donor-acceptor polymers, Electrochromic materials, Electronic papers, Electrochromism, Electrochemical doping, ECMs, Electrochromic devices, electrochromic polymers, HOMO, MLCT, self-propagating assembly, ITO glass, tetracationiccyclophane, RGB
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