Clinical and experimental data point to existence of disturbances of adaptive ability of aged organism to extreme impacts. However mechanisms of these disturbances are not clear yet. The purpose of the investigation was to study age-related changes in reaction of erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme system in response to acute psycho-emotional stress and a possible role of these changes in age-related alterations of oxygen blood transport in nonhuman primates. Ten young (6-8 years) and ten old (20-26 years) healthy female rhesus monkeys were subjected to acute moderate psychoemotional stress (two hours squeeze cage restraint) at 1500h. Plasma cortisol, lipid peroxidation products (TBARS) and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase, gluthatione reductase (GR), and gluthatione-Stransferase in erythrocytes were measured before stress and at 30, 60, 120, 240 min and 24 hours after beginning of the stress. We have found for the first time that SOD activity decreased in response to the stress in young monkeys while it increased in the half of old monkeys. Young animals also demonstrated essentially higher increase in GR activity and plasma cortisol level in response to the restraint in comparison with old monkeys. Level of TBARS did not practically change in response to the stress in young animals and significantly increased in old monkeys. The study demonstrated that the age-related alterations in SOD and GR stress responsiveness lead to activation of peroxide oxidation of lipids that may be considered as an important factor of aging damage of erythrocyte functioning and reliability of oxygen transport to tissues under stress conditions.